loss of electrons, and gain of Oxygen
Gain of electrons, & gain of hydrogen or loss of Oxygen
these require energy
natural gas when burning its being oxidized
adding water H2O
excreted by exhalation. used as a reagent ( so to make other compounds)
purene based. excretion occurs by oxidation.
stimulant in cocoa beans
stimulant in tea
hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin, iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
used as anti freeze. oxidation not by P450
amine produced from decaying flesh
chemical that inhibits/ kills a microorganism. used widely.
one of the first antibiotics used. Its a sulfa drug
the rate of chemical elimination from the body in terms of volume of fluid containing chemical per unit of time.
the time required for the blood or plasma chemical concentration to decrease by one half
mainly air pollutants
a chemical reaction that breaks apart a larger molecule by adding a molecule of water.
The addition of water to an alkene. just adding water without splitting the molecule.
Phase 2 Reactions
Phase I product forms a conjugate which can be readily eliminated. How product of Phase 1 is excreted.
What enzyme system is the most common form of phase II biotransformation?
oil that comes from sassafras. Very toxic.
phase 2 metabolism
conjugation with glucoronide, sulfate, or glycine.
parent molecule for dopamine and is given to parkinson's disease patient as dopamine cannot cross the blood brain barrier while this parent molecule can cross.
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells. Division of nucleus.
division of the nucleus.
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
term for the "line" where an animal cell is dividing
cell plate formation
Cytoplasmic division mechanism of plant cells.
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached.
tiny fibers that are seen in cell division. attaches to the centromeric region and pulls them apart.
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
Chromosomes with matching information. 1 from each parent
(genetics) a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual either XX or XY
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number.
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms....process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.
the first stage of mitosis, first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus.
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell
a globular protein; constructs microtubules
two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis.
number of sets of chromosomes in a cell
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
occurs at site of first contact
depends upon absorption and distribution.
factors affecting toxic responses
physical, chemical, biological and environmental factors
chemical that increases the activity of given enzyme.
examples: phenobarbital : common sedative
alcohol is an inducer of liver enzymes
species vary, genotype, strain, sex, age