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three derivatives of penicillin are

1. amoxacillin
2. ampicillin
3. carbenicillin

infection occurs when _________

pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues

an inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen

fomite

a disease that has a steady frequency over time in a particular geographic location

endemic

when an enzyme nicks a strand of DNA and breaks it apart while the other strand remains. the broken strand rolls off the lopp and is used as a template for 2 new chromosomes, one of which is used for mating

rolling circle method of DNA replication

why can DNA that is 1.5 mm long fit into a cell that is only .5 um in diameter

DNA has a loop domain structure

groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene hve the code for one _____

amino acid

the minimum amount of microbes that will cause disease is the _____

infectious dose

agents that can denature microbial proteins include

moist heat, metallic ions, acids, alcohol

____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to ____ heat

moist, dry

____ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them

filtration

the first phase of the bacterial growth curve, where little growth occurs

lag phase

the second phase of the bacterial growth curve, where the most growth occurs

log phase (exponential phase)

the third phase of the bacterial growth curve, where steady growth is maintained

stationary phase

the fourth phase of the bacterial growth curv, where bacteria begins to die off

decline phase

the normal process of bacterial chromosomal replication is called "semi conservative" because _________

one strand of parent DNA is conserved and the other is paried with a new strand

the array of molecules known as ___________ are the mutation fighters in the cell

DNA patrol

if it was not for _________ we would not be able to used plastic petri dished for culturing bacteria

ethylene oxide

the effectiveness of soaps is due to the fact that they _________

mechanically remove organisms

the term _________ refers to the antibiotics that are composed of amino groups and carbohydrates

aminoglycoside

the ________ state in a patient refers to the presence of a pathogenic organism in the bloodstream that is the cause of the disease

septicemic

the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cells occurs when it invades the cell and causes the cell to rupture

lytic

the _______ cycle of a bacteriophage infecting a host cell occurs when it has a repressor gene that either makes a plasmid or integrates host DNA

lysogeny

xrays are a form of _______ radiation because they make a _______ (same term) substance by taking an electron off

ionizing

exotoxins are only released after a cell is __________.

damaged or lysed

bacteriocidal agents kill _______ cells

bacterial

_______ solution was introduced in the late 19th century for treating syphillis infections

salvarasan

three types of filtration that are used for sterilization are:

inorganic, organic, membrane

in the process of autoclaving material, it is the ______ that is the sterilizing agent, not the _________.

heat, pressure

three basic physical requirements that must be met for successful sterilization using the autoclave:

15 lbs/inches squared, 15 minutes, 121.5 degrees Celcius

two organisms interacting resulting in a greater than additive effect

synergism

synthesizes own food from simple inorganic carbon sources

autotroph

a plasmid that can transfer drug resistance

r factor

sites on the chromosome to which genetic activity attributed

locus

donor mating type in bacteria

f+

symbiotic relationship benefiting both organisms

mutualism

effective agent for bacterial invasiveness

hyaluronidase

free of contaminating organisms

aseptic

agent used on living objects to destroy organisms

antiseptic

symbiotic realtionship where one organism derives benefit and the other is unharmed

commensalism

stretches of DNA replicated in a discontinuous fashion

okazaki fragment

destruction or removal of all life forms

sterilization

parasitic organism that causes disease

pathogen

bacteriophage that induces lysogeny

temperate phage

bacterial product that kills other bacteria

bateriocin

endotoxins are a part of _________ cells walls, whereas exotoxins are produced by _______ cells

gram -, gram +

endotoxins are secreted when ________, whereas exotoxins are secreted _______

the cell disintegrates, freely

discovered prontosil

domagk

first to isolate penicillin

florey and chain

father of chemotherapeutic agents

ehrlich

discovered penicillin

flemming

____________ kills bacterial cells because it inhibits chromosome replication so that maintenance proteins are not produced

ultraviolet light

the first stage of an infectious disease, the period between invasion of the bacteria and appearance of symptoms

incubation

second stage of an infectious disease, when the general symptoms show

prodrome/prodromal

third stage of infectious disease, when sever symptoms show/occur

acme

fourth stage of infectious disease, when symptoms fade away

decline/dying

fifth stage of infectious disease, when there are no symptoms, carrier

convalescence

opportunistic pathogens cause disease in ________

compromised individuals

virulence factors include:

capsules, exoenzymes, endtoxins, exotoxins

two major drawbacks for the use of penicillin:

it can produce life threatening allergic reactions, and cause increased resistance to the drug

Coagulates _____

clot fibrogen proteins around organism

leukocidins damage _____

white blood cells

hemolysins damage ____

red blood cells

someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a _____

carrier

the bacterial chromosome found in a space in the cytoplasm is called the _____

nucleoid

an animal such as an arthropod that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a _____

vector

a form of bacterial recombination, bacteriophage introduces DNA

transduction

a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA donates nucleic acids via pilli to recipient

conjugation

a form of bacterial recombination, donor DNA goes into recipient and replaces a degraded strand of recipient DNA

tansformation

2 common techniques used to generate pure cultures from a sample:

streak plate, pour plate

type of transposable genetic element, larger and non-reciprocal (nothing replaces it)

transpoons

type of transposable genetic element, smaller and original sequence stays in place

insertion sequences

the site where the old DNA strands separate and the new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the ______

replication fork

a permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a ______

mutation

degree of pathogenicity:

virulence

member of normal flora that generates disease in debilitated individual:

opportunist

large outbreak of disease:

epidemic

global outbreak of disease:

pandemic

___ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage

chlorine

examples of heavy metals:

merthiolate, silver nitrate solutions, zinc, mercurochrome

______ solution introduced in the 19th century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborns eyes after exposure to mothers infected birth canal

silver nitrate

the term infection refers to:

pathogens penetrating host defenses

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