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Personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Self-Report

a series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMIP-2)

A well researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems

Projective Techniques

a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality

Rorschach Inkblot Test

A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people

Trait

A relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way

Big Five

The traits of the five-factor model; conscientious, agreeableness, openness to experience, neuroticism, and extraversion

Psychodynamic Approach

an approach that regards personality as formed by needs, strivings, and desires, largely operating outside of awareness motives that can also produce emotional disorders

Dynamic Unconscious

an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces

id

Freud's term for the human being's basic drives

Ego

Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society

Superego

the part of the personality in Freud's theory that is responsible for making moral choices; internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority

Defense Mechanisms

unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses

Rationalization

A defense mechanism that involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal (mostly from oneself) one's underlying motives or feelings

Reaction Formation

a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite

Projection

A defense mechanism that involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group.

Regression

A defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development

Displacement

A defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less-threatening alternative

Identification

A defense mechanism that helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope

Sublimation

A defense mechanism that involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities

Psychosexual stages

distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures

Fixation

A phenomenon in which a person's pleasure seeking drives become psychologically stuck, or arrested, at a particular psychosexual stage

Oral Stage

The first psychosexual stage, in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed

Anal Stage

The second psychosexual stage, which is dominated by the pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training

Phallic Stage

The third psychosexual stage, during which experience is dominated by the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of loves, hate, jealousy, and conflict

Oedipus Conflict

a developmental experience in which a child's conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent is (usually) resolved by identifying with the same-sex parent

Latency Stage

The fourth psychosexual stage, in which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills

Genital Stage

The final psychosexual stage, a time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner

Self-actualization Theory

The human motive toward realizing our inner potential

Existential Approach

A school of thought that regards personality as governed by an individual's ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death

Social cognitive approach

an approach that views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them

Person-situation controversy

The question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors

Personal Constructs

Dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences

Outcome expectancies

A person's assumptions about the likely consequences of a future behavior

Locus of Control

A person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment

Self-concept

A person's explicit knowledge of his or her own behaviors, traits, and other personal characteristics

Self-verification

The tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept

Self-esteem

The extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self

Self-serving bias

People's tendency to take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures

Narcissism

A trait that reflects a grandiose view of the self combined with a tendency to seek admiration from and exploit others

From a psychological perspective, personality refers to

a person's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling

Projective techniques to assess personality involve

responses to ambiguous stimuli

A relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way is a

trait

Compelling evidence for the importance of biological factors is personality in personality is best seen in studies of

identical twins reared apart

Which of Freud's systems of the mind would impel you to, if hungry, start grabbing food off people's plates upon entering a restaurant?

the id

After performing poorly on an exam, you drop a class, saying that you and the professor are just a poor match. According to Freud, what defense mechanism are you employing?

Rationalization

According to Freud, a person who is preoccupied with his or her possessions, money, issues of submission and rebellion, and concerns about cleanliness versus messiness is fixated at which psychosexual stage?

the anal stage

Humanists see personality as directed toward the goal of

self-actualization

According to the existential perspective, the difficulties we face in finding meaning in life and in accepting the responsibility for making free choices provoke a type of anxiety called

angst

According to social cognitive theorists, _____ are the dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences

personal constructs

What we think about ourselves is referred to as our ______ and how we feel about ourselves is referred to as our ______.

self-concept; self-esteem

On what do the key theories on the benefits of self-esteem focus?

status, belonging, security

When people take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures, they are exhibiting

the self-serving bias

______is an individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling.

Personality

"MMPI" stands for

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The main weakness of projective tests is that

the results are subjective and interpretations vary widely

Studies of identical twins reared apart suggest that _____factors are more predictive of differences in personalities that ______factors.

Nonshared environment; shared environment

Jeffery Gray developed a model of personality based on physiological arousal in which the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) controlled ______and the behavioral activation system (BAS) controlled _______.

neuroticism; extraversion

Which structure of the mind would have the motto, "I gotta have it, and I gotta have it now!"

id

Sigmund Freud believed that the default defense mechanism is:

repression

Julie was told in her job evaluation that she is timid in meetings and passive with clients. However, she knows herself to be aggressive, and her friends and colleagues would agree. Now she goes out of her way to interrupt at meetings and hound clients. Julie is exhibiting what psychological tendency?

self-verification

Explanations of personality differences are concerned with _____ and _____.

prior events; anticipated events

______consists of a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality.

projective techniques

_____saw traits as preexisting dispositions; _____believed that traits reflect needs or desires

Gordon Allport; Henry Murray

Which of the five factors of the Big Five shows the highest degree of heritability?

extraversion

Samuel Gosling's studies of personalities in hyenas relied on slightly different measures than those used with humans. What trait was substituted for agreeableness in measuring the animal analog for that trait?

absence of aggression

Which of the following did Sigmond Freud consider a level of mental life?

subconscious

Jenny is following a strict diet that doesn't allow processed sugar, but she can't resist taking a doughnut from a tray as she passes it. Now she feels guilty about cheating. Her feeling of guilt is a result of what structure of the mind?

superego

The stage in which the Oedipus conflict occurs is the:

phallic stage

Our explicit knowledge of our own behaviors, traits, and other personal characteristics is called out:

self-concept

_____is a grandiose view of the self, combined with a tendency to see admiration from and exploit others.

self-serving bias

The MMPI is classified as what type of personality test?

self-report

Which of the following psychologists developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)?

Sigmund Freud

Allport and Odbert catalogued more than ______words in an English-language dictionary that could be used to describe personality traits

18,000

What are the two sets of anchors for the trait dimensions in Hans Eysenck's model of personality traits?

emotional and stable, introverted and extraverted

Hans Eysenck proposed that the _____ of the brain of extraverts is not easily stimulated.

reticular formation

The date of your childhood best friend's birthday resides in what level of mental life, according to Sigmund Freud?

preconscious

The ______ and ______ do not operate according to the reality principle

id; superego

Carl Rogers believed that ______ is necessary for healthy personality development

unconditional positive regard

The Rorschach Inkblot Test is an example of

a projective technique

By having people make up stories about different pictures they see, researchers attempt to

infer the underlying motives, concerns, and views about the world of the responder

Most researchers using factor analysis agree that _________ are the core traits of personality

conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion

Biological factors have shown to be _________ in determining personality

important

Sigmund is very interested in his neighbor Sally but has much anxiety about his attraction to her since his friends would not approve. Every time he sees her he acts very rude and says mean things to her despite his intense attraction to her. This is an example of what type of defense mechanism?

reaction formation

According to existentialists, personality is largely the result of

secure-providing defense mechanisms

Shelby attends class, takes notes, reads her textbook, and reviews her work because she believes that it is up to her to do well in class and that she has the resources to do well. Shelby has a(n) _________ locus of control

internal

People with highly reactive behavioral activation systems are likely to be

introverts

Which component of the mind did Freud describe as the most primitive, serving as the center of innate drives and free from the restraints of the external world?

the id

Proponents of the humanistic approach focused on the potential to _________ as the core of what makes us human and unique among all other animals

show personal growth

When people define themselves according to personality traits, they are using __________ to organize their self-concept.

self-schemas

Researchers interested in investigating the prior events that have shaped how we behave, think, and feel are probably most interested in __________personality

explaining

According to the trait approach to personality, an individual's trait

is relatively consistent across a variety of settings.

The five-factor structure of personality is _________ in that it _________ across all cultures and languages

universal; remains constant

Research has demonstrated that introverts typically respond _________ to a variety of stimuli as compared to extraverts

more strongly

The id operates according to the _________ principle, and the ego is regulated by the _________ principle

pleasure; reality

Activities such as football and other contact sports are a form of _________ according to the psychodynamic approach and allow unconscious wishes and desires to be transformed into socially acceptable behaviors

sublimation

Fixations can occur throughout the psychosexual stages as proposed by Freud because of

either deprivation or overindulgence in pleasurable experiences at a given stage

Lisa decided at a young age that if she was nice to people, they would be nice to her. This is an example of:

outcomes expectancies

When an athlete wins a competition, she is likely to stress her hard work and physical talents. When she loses a competition, she is likely to emphasize the quality of her competition. This illustrates the

self-serving bias

The two major kinds of measures used by psychologists to measure personality are:

personality inventories and projective techniques.

Because projective tests are based on _________, they are a controversial practice in psychology

the interpretation of the scorer

Research suggests that when two siblings have similar personalities, this similarity is thought to be the result of:

genetics

_________ largely governs the dynamics among the id, ego, and superego

anxiety

The _________ is pivotal for personality according to the humanistic approach

self actualization tendency

Charles, a senior in high school, unknowingly made the decision to attend the College of Charleston over the University of South Carolina because of:

implicit egotism

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