Protestant, leading critic of traditional religious attitudes - attacked superstition, religious intolerance, dogmatism, believed that the rational principles of textual criticism should be applied to the Bible, skepticism about religion & secularization of thought, wrote Historical and Critical Dictionary
1632-1677; philosopher from the Netherlands; excommunicated from Jewish synagogue; pantheist/monist who denied the possibilty of revealed religion and inspiration of scripture; believed all governments to be unjust, wrote Ethics
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. He wrote Concerning Human Understanding
means "blank slate" -- Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke believed humans were born as a blank slate and were shaped by environment
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
"republic of letters"
Intellectual communities of scholars and literary figures (men) that stretched across national boundaries but respected differences in language and culture. Letters because the individuals wrote to each other from great distances. Voltaire and Diderot participated, among many others.
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government
written by Montesquieu; described a Persian in France writing to another back in the middle east and compared Louis XIV to the Persian ruler; criticized French government
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Crush the infamous thing!
"Ecrasez l'infame" rallying cry by Voltaire against rigid religion, government abuse, and remaining medievalism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Diderot and d'Alembert
"The Encyclopedia"- 17 volumes from 1751-1772 on everything in society (over 700 articles)- the monument of print culture and enlightenment; meant to improve people's lives AND take religion out of government (secularize)
Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
the transition in Europe from a society where literacy consisted of patriarchal and communal reading of religious texts to a society where literacy consisted of individiual and silent reading of broad and diverse texts, creating new ways in which people related to the written word
These were meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens who would talk about different doctrines
personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid-1700s and featuring fancy design in the shape of leaves, shells, and scrolls
an idealized intellectual environment that emerged in Europe during the Enlightenment, where members of society came together as individuals to discuss issues relevant to the society, economics, and politics of the day
Philosophe who published the "Social Contract." he posited that people are born good but are corrupted from education, laws, and society. He advocated a government based on popular sovereignty and was distrustful of other philosophes' suffocating conformity to "reason."
According to Rousseau the general will is sacred and absolute, reacting the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power. It should always work for the common good.
a professor in East Prussia and the greatest German philosopher of the age, argued in 1784 that if serious thinkers were granted the freedom to exercise their reason publicly in print, then enlightenment would follow-suggested that Prussia's Frederick the Great was an enlightened monarch because he permitted freedom of press
"Dare to Know"
The motto of the enlightenment as proclaimed by Immanuel Kant