A practice especially common with Jackson which rewarded loyal voters and campaigners with government jobs thereby repaying them for their patronage and also filling the bureaucracy with those of the winning party.
The tariff of 1828 (tariff of abomination) pitted Jackson against JC Calhoun and exposed the sectional differences, particularly southern opposition to tariffs; Calhoun responded with the doctrine of nullification which stated that states have the right to protect themselves against the federal government and override federal law; Jackson pushed through the Force Bill which authorized his use of military force to collect the taxes in South Carolina.
Jackson's opposition to rechartering the federal bank led him to help create state banks to be depositories of federal revenue and most often choosing them based on their loyalty to the Democratic party.
Martin Van Buren
Jackson's hand picked successor to the Presidency, elected in 1836 from the Democratic Party; his administration was seen as inept in handling the economic crisis which became the Panic of 1837; Van Buren also appeared indecisive on the growing abolitionist and other reform movements.
A new political party created during Jackson's second term as president and consisting of his opponents from North and South to include southern advocates of nullification, northern reformers and northern advocates of the national bank, commercial farmers, merchants, and Anti-Masons.
father of public schools and influential reformer who advocated the creation of public education to instill common civic and moral values and combat ignorance in the population.
William Lloyd Garrison
Fiery white abolitionist who published The Liberator, a newspaper advocating "immediate emancipation" for slaves.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and author of the Declaration of Sentiments calling for women's equality and woman suffrage;
Seneca Falls Convention
Representative of the reform movement and the consensus among reformers of the need to address women's rights.
Popular health movement of the antebellum period which stated that a person's personality could be revealed by studying and interpreting the bumps on one's skull.
The creation of a uniquely American literature and art which included Hawthorne, Emerson, Poe, Thoreau, Cooper, and Alcott.
Wrote realistic fiction whose themes exposed the conflicting emotions of humans and the sometimes tragic results of their failures; he was part of the American Renaissance.
Hinton R. Helper
Published Impending Crisis of the South calling upon non slave-holding white Southerners to abolish slavery in their own interests.
Southern Code of Honor
Societal expectations and behaviors of southern whites used as a means of dealing with insults and affronts; led to a higher rate of violence.
A Christianized Virginia slave responsible for planning a slave revolt, he was betrayed and executed for the conspiracy.
A SC slave who bought his freedom then planned a slave revolt for which he and his followers were executed.
A rather unorganized method of helping southern slaves escape from the South through a network of safe houses; often aided by former slaves like Harriet Tubman and Josiah Henson.
Former slave and articulate abolitionist who advocated immediate abolition and worked toward freedmen's citizenship rights.
Ideology which developed in direct response to early 19th century immigration; based on the idea of native born white Americans that Irish immigrants took jobs from them, fear of a Catholic conspiracy and resistance to their Democratic activity.
Violence born of nativism in Philadelphia where Whit anti-immigrants attacked Irish Catholics over the liquor regulations and Bibles used in schools.
Spanish forts or garrisons constructed in the Southwest to protect Catholic missions
Unique language of American born slaves which allowed them to communicate with one another and develop their own culture.
An abandoned mission in Texas that became the site of a Texas defeat at the hands of Santa Anna and the Mexican army in the Texas revolution.
The path taken by American migrants to the far west - Oregon and California; extremely harsh conditions characterized the trip usually made by groups of families who worked cooperatively.
Phrase which describes the antebellum philosophy that God had ordained the U.S. would eventually and inevitably own the continent from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast.
James K. Polk
Democrat's dark horse candidate elected president in 1844; he orchestrated the Mexican War by provoking a border dispute in Texas from which he hoped to gain both California and Mexico; he also intended to settle the territorial dispute in Oregon by dividing it at the 49th parallel.