The first person to drill an oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures. (p. 703)
invented the telephone, it opened the way for a world wide communications network
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
A union that stands for the American Federation of Labor. Started by Samuel Gompers. Initially, he was President of the Cigarmakers' Union, but he convinced other craft unions to band together with the cigarrmakers to form the union. The union became a major force in the industrial world. The union thinks a fair labor force will lead to a just society.
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
designed elegant passenger and sleeping cars
a construction company that was owned by the Union Pacific Railroad, they used to fraudulently skim off raiload profits for themsleves (1864)
Munn vs Illinois
A Supreme Court Case that allowed the state governments to regulate the railroads in favor of farmers or Grangers
Interstate Commerce Act
a law that made a federal Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices
philanthropist who owned a steel company and invented vertical integration
(Industrial Workers of the World) A labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905.
Mary Harris Jones
Labor organizer, known as Mother Jones. She fought for coal workers' rights by speaking in Appalachian mining towns, encouraging them to join unions. She also faught for child labor laws.
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements (horizontal integration) that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
merging of competing companies in one area of business
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
The idea that certain people are inherently superior to others. Social Darwinists did not want the government to regulate business
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
He was the head of the American Railway Union. Later he would run for President in the 1912 election.
A market in which there is no competition; one company controls the market
policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
The process of running other businesses out of business so that one's own business can prosper; includes Rockefeller and Morgan
Interstate Commerce Act
1887, a law that made a federal Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices
Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved little
strike in Chicago that turned violent killing 8 policemen and a number of civilians; Workers were striking for an 8 hour work day and better working conditions.
a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition
a form of business which does not create anything itself; instead, it owns the stock of companies that do produce goods