what percentage of body mass is muscle?
what is the study of muscles?
what is the generation of heat?
somatic nervous system
muscles under voluntary control are controlled by the _ nervous system
a muscle cell is also called a
a muscle fiber is the same as a
muscles under involuntary control are controlled by the _ nervous system
is cardiac muscle striated?
is smooth muscle striated?
characteristic of cardiac muscle contractions due to pacemaker
the shape of smooth muscles fibers
control of smooth muscle is voluntary or involuntary?
the working unit of a muscle, what actually contracts.
units of myofibrils
1 somatic neuron, 1 artery, 1 or 2 veins
for every muscle there is
the hypodermis is made of this tissue
the fascia is made of this tissue
the epimysium is made of this tissue
the perimysium is made of this tissue
the endomysium is made of this tissue
membrane surrounding the whole muscle
membrane surrounding fascicles
membrane surrounding each muscle fiber
hypodermis and fascia
connective tissues outside of muscles
a sheet that forms a layer around muscles. allows free movement, carries blood vessels and nerves, and fills space in between muscle cells
made of all layers of connective tissue of a muscle, they all flow into this.
plasma membrane of a muscle. doesnt flow into the tendon :O
cytoplasm of a muscle
muscle fibers were made by the fusion of many of these cells.
this is why they have multiple nuclei. do not exist in adults by this name.
cells used to repair muscle fibers. fuse to the cells, dont create new ones.
myoblasts by a different name, in adults.
normal muscle growth
disorder. increase in number of muscle fibers. tendons cant handle it. restricts movement.
when a muscle turns into scar tissue
degeneration of muscles. main cause is lack of use. loss of myofibrils not fibers.
little tunnels filled with interstitial fluid, activate multiple parts of muscle cell at once. where action potential travels to inner fibers.
a cytoplasmic protein that carries oxygen
a polymer of glucose
membranous sac, "terminal cistern"
the part of a myofibril between two z discs
2 major hormones controlling muscle growth
part of the sarcomere that contains only thick/myosin filaments
part of the sarcomere that contains only thin/actin filaments
part of the sarcomere that contains the whole length of thick/myosin filament, including overlap
zone of overlap
part of the sarcomere of overlaping of thick and thin filaments
during a contraction the h zone
during a contraction the a band
during a contraction the zone of overlap
during a contraction the i band
contains myosin minding site
regulatory protein that covers myosin binding sites
calcium ions mind to this regulatory protein to reveal myosin binding sites on actin
number of myosin molecules, or heads, per thick filament
protein that gives muscles extensibility and elasticity
protein that forms the m-line
protein that anchors thin filaments to z-disc
protein that links thin filaments to sarcolema. plays a tole in transmitting tension from sarcomere to connective tissue to tendon.
suffix which means breaks down
tests strength of electric impulses and synapses. used to diagnose disorders like muscular dystrophy
_ is released in 1st step of neurotransmission. binds to receptors to open channel that releases Na+ ions
breaks down ACh
meds that slow down AChE from breaking down ACh
toxin produced by clostridium botulinum. relaxes muscles. prevents ACh from being released. paralyzes muscle. prevents wrinkles.
poison that causes muscle paralysis. binds to receptors so channels do not open because it covers ACh binding sites. needs and enzyme to release it.
stiffness post death due to leaky membranes, calcium is released so muscles contract
binds to calcium to help remove it from the sarcoplasm
this consists of the motor nerve plus all the fibers it innervates
the number of fibers per motor unit in the larnyx
the number of fibers per motor unit in the eye
the number of fibers per motor unit in the biceps or calves
motor unit recruitment
activation of necessary fibers, certain number of fibers. smoother contractions and movements. delays muscle fatigue.
one action potential leads to a brief contraction called a
_ period: time between stimulus and beginning of contraction. includes action potential and release of calcium
_ period: when calcium binds to troponin and crossbridge formation occurs
_ period: includes calcium going back into SR
how long the latent period lasts
how long the contraction period lasts
how long the relaxation period lasts
how long a muscle twitch can last (all three periods: latent, contraction, and relaxation)
_ period when myofibril is not excitable
for skeletal muscle the refractory period lasts
for cardiac muscle the refractory period lasts
basal level of contraction of a muscle, low frequency of action potentials, firm appearance, product of brain activity and spinal cord
a muscle without muscle tone appears _
increase in muscle tone. in extreme cases muscle stiffness from spasticity.
decrease in muscle tone. flat, flaccid appearance
when muscles lose flexibility from extreme hypotonia
contractions in which length changes but tension remains constant
contraction in which the muscle shortens. tension exceeds load.
contraction in which the muscle lengthens. load exceeds tension
contraction in which tension developes, but length remains constant. tension equals load.
most ATP used by muscle cells is from
most efficient way to generate ATP
90% of ATP is from _ for activity lasting >10 min
at the end of a marathon 100% of the ATP is from _
stores energy, which cant be stored as ATP.
creatine provides enough energy for a short burst lasting about
anaerobic metabolism which produces pyruvate
pyruvate is converted into _ during anaerobic metabolism
% of pyruvate converted into lactic acid
% of pyruvate that returns to liver to become glucose again
recovery oxygen uptake
new name for replenishing oxygen after exercise
type of skeletal muscle fiber: dark red
type of skeletal muscle fiber: red/pink
type of skeletal muscle fiber: white
type of skeletal muscle fiber: fatigue resistant
type of skeletal muscle fiber: easily fatigued
type of skeletal muscle fiber: found in neck back and legs
type of skeletal muscle fiber: found in shoulders, arms
type of skeletal muscle fiber: _ can convert into _, but not reverse. only conversion.
type of skeletal muscle fiber: 50% of fibers are this type
type of skeletal muscle fiber: smallest in diameter
type of skeletal muscle fiber: biggest in diameter
type of skeletal muscle fiber: least powerful
type of skeletal muscle fiber: most powerful
type of skeletal muscle fiber: mainly aerobic
type of skeletal muscle fiber: mainly anaeorobic
type of skeletal muscle fiber: maintain posture, marathon, endurance
type of skeletal muscle fiber: lots of glycogen
type of skeletal muscle fiber: sprints, weightlifting, pitching
link cardiac muscles electrically. signal continues. ions flow though it = electrical impulse
this muscle type has no motor unit
this muscle type is not arranged in sarcomeres
contain calcium in smooth muscle
anchoring points that connect thin filaments in smooth muscle