Good evening! Welcome to our presentation of the acute lower respiratory infection. My name is Shamar Lamb &My name is Divya Venkataganesan
Air pollution is a serious problem in resource poor countries.
"A major source of air pollution exposure in the developing world is smoke due to inefficient cooking with biomass fuels in poorly ventilated homes." (2)
"Half of the world's households use biomass fuel (wood, dung, coal, crop residues, grass) for electricity and cooking." (8)
Health problems resulting from the air pollution is a serious problem.
"Acute lower respiratory infection is the chief cause of childhood morbidity worldwide and the chief cause of childhood deaths in less developed countries." (6)
Health effects are more severe in children and older adults.
"...children and older adults...(have) the most vulnerable population, with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality from acute lower respiratory infection." (4)
Carbon in smoke is a major problem.
"Carbon particles present in biomass smoke, resembling those in ambient air, are found in the airway macrophages(a large cell) of exposed children." (5)
Annually, acute lower respiratory infections kill more children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined. Yet, the world is giving them scant attention. (10)
Acute Lower Respiratory Infection (ALRI) is the
Inflammation of the large bronchi in the lungs.
Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, high fever, coughing and fatigue.
ALRI is the "Leading contributor to the global burden of disease." (2)
The major cause of childhood death in less developed countries.
Indoor air pollution ranked 8th on the examined list of risk factors globally, 9th in premature deaths."(2)
Children are constantly affected by air pollution in Guatemala.
"Young girls spend substantial amount of time indoors helping their mothers and learning cooking skills. (5)
"Infants being carried on the back of mothers are exposed to biomass smoke right from the beginning of their life cycle." (5)
Toddlers are exposed while playing around or near stove." (5)
Therefore, "environmental air pollution has detrimental effects on the lung function of children." (5)
"Children have greater risk of developing acute lower respiratory infections compared to those who live in homes using relatively cleaner fuels." (5)
The health statuses of these children are followed from birth until they reach 18 months. (This is the period of greatest ALRI risk)" (6)
How do indoor air pollutants from woodstoves affect children's growth and development?
For households using biomass fuels, the risk is strong due to high daily concentration of pollutants found in such places. (6)
Young children spend large amounts of time with mothers doing household cooking. Thus, being affected by ALRI. (6)
Even small risks of air pollution have a massive impact on children of less developed countries. (6)
3 billion people are exposed to indoor air pollution. Given that average, daily indoor concentrations of pollutants are high. The burden of diseases caused by this exposure is very large. (7)
here are some facts on biomass fuel and air pollution
"Use of biomass as a source of energy is widespread. Worldwide, approximately 3 billion people depend on biomass for cooking and heating." (5)
"A major source of air pollution exposure in the developing word is smoke due to inefficient cooking with biomass fuels in poorly ventilated homes." (2)
"Young children living in households exposed to solid fuel (BMF) have a 2 to 3 times greater risk of developing acute lower respiratory infection compared to those living in households using cleaner fuels or suffering less exposure to smoke." (3)
"When wood burns, it releases hazardous gases (such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide) and soot (also known as particulate matter) into the air."
Thank you for being here this evening! My name is Shamar Lamb ( My name is Divya) Do you have any question?