test 2 psych

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1. When we use the term remembering in day-to-day life, we are making reference to which memory process

Working memory pg. 213

2. Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term memory is termed what

Chunk pg. 211

3. Arturo studies by rewriting and rereading his class notes over and over again; this process is somewhat analogous to what kind of rehearsal

Elaborative Rehearsal pg. 213

4. "She did WHAT??" your roommate exclaims as you relate an anecdote about a mutual friend. Your roommate is processing your story in which type of memory.

Working pg. 213

5. Our ability to recall an item from a list depends on where in the list the item occurs. This is called the Pg. 215

Serial Position effect.

6. "I know it! It's um . . . um . . . It starts with 'G'," begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is falling prey to the

Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon effect.

7. Retrieval cues are especially helpful when we try to recall information that is stored in

Long-Term memory.

8. Multiple-choice exam questions generally test what type of memory

Recognition pg. 222

9. When professors give essay exams, they are generally testing students' what type of memory?

Long-Term Semantic Memory

11. Higher mental processes like reasoning, decision making, and solving problems are typically considered the domain of

Cognitive Psychology

12. Language, memory, and thinking are all examples of

Cognition

13. In the area of thinking, the term prototype refers to

typical, highly representative examples of a concept

14. The type of strategy involved in reasoning in which a person uses a mental shortcut is referred to as a(n)

heuristic

15. Researchers who study how to use technology to imitate the outcome of human thinking, problem solving, and creativity are interested in the field of

artificial intelligence.

16. Problems of inducing structure require that a person

must identify the existing relationships among the elements presented, then construct a new relationship among them.

17. The tendency for old problem-solving styles to persist is referred to as

mental set

18. The kind of thinking involved in generating creative solutions to a problem is called

divergent thinking.

19. The rules for correctly making sentences form the---- of language.

Syntax

20. A 3-year-old child says, "The doggy runned fast!" A linguist would call this

overgeneralization

21. The view that languages around the world share a common underlying structure and that the human brain has a neural system ready to acquire language reflects the

universal grammar view of language acquisition.

22. Proponents of the interactionist approach believe that in acquiring language

Genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances

23. Psychologists define intelligence as

the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively.

24. Early theorists such as Spearman argued that g represented basic intelligence. According to these theorists, individuals high in g:

High intelligence ability in multiply areas

25. Bonnie studied mechanics in high school and spent a lot of time helping out at her dad's garage. Her ability to replace a blown gasket relies primarily on her ----- intelligence

crystalized

26. Kyana is an excellent salesperson because she can always find a way of connecting with a potential client. Based on this information, in which kind of intelligence would Gardner expect Kyana to be high?

Interpersonal intelligence

27. The notion of practical intelligence is associated with:

Sternberg

28. The three types of intelligence proposed by Sternberg include each of the following EXCEPT __________ intelligence. The 3 types of intelligence proposed by Sternberg were: Analytical, creative, and practical

...

29. The first legitimate intelligence tests were developed by:

Alfred Binet

30. The practical problem Alfred Binet was trying to solve when he developed his intelligence test was:

Placement for slow students

31. Laura is 8; her performance on a series of tasks is equivalent to that of the average 10-year-old. Her intelligence quotient is:

125. IQ score = MA x 100
CA

32. What are some of the disadvantages of group IQ tests?

Groups are hard to test and inaccurate.

33. A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group is termed a(n)

culture fair

34. By definition, a drive is what

drive- motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need

35. Primary drives are related to---- in the same way that secondary drives are related to -----

biologicallearned.

36. Drive-reduction and arousal approaches to motivation are similar in that they both

if our stimulation/arousal and activity levels become too high, we try to reduce them.

37. Zeke likes to engage in daredevil sports such as snowboarding and motocross, suggesting that

he has a high need for Stimulation/arousal.

38. A person's work tends to be of lower quality when he or she is motivated

extrinsic.

39. In Maslow's hierarchy, the desire to be a contributing member of society is closely associated with the ---- need.

esteem

40. In most cases, eating disordered behavior first appears during

Adolescence

41. Obesity is defined medically as body weight that is more than ---- the average weight

20%

42. Changes in levels of ----- in the blood system regulate feelings of hunger.

glucose

43. Our metabolic rate seems to be largely determined by

genetic factors.

44. The hypothesis that genetic inheritance in combination with the environment in which a person lives determines the weight that the body strives to maintain is known as the

weight set point.

45. What are the differences regarding the need for power between women and men

Innate and Learned

46. Researchers have found substantial cross-cultural similarity in the content of gender stereotypes. How might this finding be interpreted with respect to the nature-vs.-nurture issue

Could be either innate or cultural.

47. Clark always holds the door for women.

Chivalry, or Benevolent sexism

48. According to your text, that which is considered sexy or erotic:

It varies from culture to culture

49. The research methods Kinsey used in his pioneering studies allowed him to describe and identify what

Sexual Behavior

50. What does research indicate regarding the prevalence of AIDS

• 25 million p• Found in Primarily in Homosexual men in the US.eople have dies from AIDS 25 times more likely to be found in African American women4 times more iSpread by exchanging body fluidsn Hispanic women

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