Physiology Brain and Spinal cord

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Brain & Spinal cord

What are the main parts of the CNS (Central Nervous System)?

12 31

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of...
__ Pairs of cranial nerves (Think Smaller)
__ Pairs of spinal nerves (Think Larger)

B

There are two parts to the PNS, what are they?
A. Brain & Spinal Cord
B. Afferent & Efferent Division
C. Visual & Auditory System

B

This "division" of the PNS consists of SENSORY nerve fibers that carry nerve impulses from the RECEPTORS to the CNS...
A. Efferent Division
B. Afferent Division
C. Effector Division

A

This "division" of the PNS consists of MOTOR nerve fibers that carry nerve impulses from the CNS to the effectors...
A. Efferent Division
B. Afferent Division
C. Effector Division

B

This "nervous system" consists of motor nerve fibers that carry nerve impulses to the skeletal muscles...
A. Autonomic nervous system
B. Somatic nervous system
C. Central nervous system

A

This "nervous system" consists of motor nerve fibers that carry nerve impulses to the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands of the body.
A. Autonomic nervous system
B. Somatic nervous system
C. Central nervous system

B

What are the two parts of the ANS? (Autonomic nervous system)
A. Afferent Division & Efferent
B. Sympathetic Parasympathetic
C. Brain & Spinal Cord

A

Grey and White Brain Matter: This part of the CNS is composed of cell bodies of neurons, interneurons, and neuroglia cells?
A. Gray matter
B. White matter

B

Grey and White Brain Matter: This part of the CNS is composed of nerve fibers, that is nerve fibers formed into nerve tracts?
A. Gray matter
B. White matter

3

How many layers of protection does the central nervous system have?

A

Layers of protection for the central nervous system MIDDLE LAYER: This is part of the middle layer (meninges), and consists of tough dense connective tissue, it's function is protection.
A. Dura Mater
B. Arachnoid Mater
C. Pia Mater

3

Layers of protection for the central nervous system: how many Layers of meninges are there?

C

When dealing with the meninges and the middle layer of protection for the CNS, what is the "space that lies between the arachnoid mater and pia mater, that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid?
A. Dura Mater
B. Arachnoid Mater
C. Subarachnoid space

C

Layers of protection for the central nervous system MIDDLE LAYER: This is composed of delicate connective tissue and is highly vascularized, it adheres directly to brain and spinal cord. It's function is nourishment and protection.
A. Dura Mater
B. Arachnoid Mater
C. Pia Mater

B

Layers of protection for the central nervous system MIDDLE LAYER: Threadlike extensions attach it to the pia mater. It's function is protection.
A. Dura Mater
B. Arachnoid Mater
C. Pia Mater

C

Layers of protection for the central nervous system : In this layer, the skull protects the brain, and the vertebral collumn protects the spinal cord.
A. Inner layer
B. Middle Layer
C. Outer Layer

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Layers of protection for the central nervous system INNER LAYER: The inner layer of protection for the central nervous system is made up of what "fluid"?

D

Layers of protection for the central nervous system INNER LAYER: What is the source of cerebrospinal fluid?
A. Axons
B. Astrocytes
C. Melinges
D. Choroid plexus

A

What is the function of CSF?
A. Absorbing blows, nourishing the brain, remove waste products
C. Nerve impulse conduction, removing waste products
D. Muscle twitch reactions, Absorbing blows, brain nourishment.

B

How many lateral ventricles of the brain are there?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

Lateral

Are the brain ventricles lateral or distal?

A

These are the two functions of what structure?
1. serves as a pathway for impulses between the body and brain.
2. Center for spinal reflexes

A. Spinal Cord
B. Brain
C. CNS

Spinal

This feature is common to all _____ reflexes?
-Never more than one sensory involved.

Spinal

This feature is common to all _____ reflexes?
Cell body of sensory neuron lies outside the spinal cord in the dorsal root ganglion (_____ ganglion)

12 31

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of:
__ pairs of cranial nerves
___ pairs of spinal nerves

C

Cranial nerves: How many pairs of cervical nerves are there?
A. 5
B. 12
C. 8

12

Cranial nerves: How many pairs of thoracic nerves are there? (Remember, its a complex area)
A. 12
B. 5
C. 1

B

Cranial nerves: How many pairs of lumbar nerves are there?
A. 7
B. 5
C. 12

A

Cranial nerves: How many sacral pairs of nerves are there?
A. 5
B. 7
C. 12

A

Cranial nerves: How many pairs of coccygeal nerves are there?
A. 1
B. 5
C. 8

C

This fluid is formed by the choroid plexi of the ventricles at the rate of 800 ml/day. Once formed it circulates through the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord. It then returns to the blood in dural sinuses through the arachnoid villi.
A. Axons
B. Astrocytes
C. Cerebrospinal fluid
D. Choroid plexus
E. Melinges

800

Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by the choroid plexi of the ventricles at the rate of how much a day?
HINT:(__ml/day) WRITE FULL ANSWER!!

A

Inner Cerebrum: Nerve fibers that carry either decending nerve impulses from the cerebral cortex to other regions of the brain or spinal cord, or ascending nerve impulses from the spinal cord and lower regions of the brain to the cerebral cortex.
A. Projection Tracts
B. Association Tracts
C. Commisural Tracts
D. Corpus Callosum

B

Inner Cerebrum: Nerve fibers that connect various areas of the cerebral cortex within the same cerebral hemisphere.
A. Projection Tracts
B. Association Tracts
C. Commisural Tracts
D. Corpus Callosum

C

Inner Cerebrum: Nerve fibers that connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
A. Projection Tracts
B. Association Tracts
C. Commisural Tracts
D. Corpus Callosum

D

Inner Cerebrum: This makes possible the exchange of information in the form of nerve impulses between cerebral hemispheres.
A. Projection Tracts
B. Association Tracts
C. Commisural Tracts
D. Corpus Callosum

C

Cerebral Cortex: Neurons in this area control the conscious and precise voluntary contractions of skelatal muscles.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area

E

Cerebral Cortex: Neurons in this area cause groups of muscles to contract in a specific, thereby producing stereotyped movements.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area
D. Primary Motor Area
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area
I. Frontal Association Area

F

Cerebral Cortex: Motor area associated with the ability to speak. It is found only in the left cerebral hemisphere in most individuals.
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area

C

Cerebral Cortex: Neurons in this area function as interpretation centers for the general senses.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area
D. Primary Motor Area
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area
I. Frontal Association Area

A

Cerebral Cortex: Neurons in this area function as the interpretation center for the sense of vision.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area
D. Primary Motor Area
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area
I. Frontal Association Area

H

Cerebral Cortex: Neurons in this area function as the interpretation center for the sense of hearing.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area
D. Primary Motor Area
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area
I. Frontal Association Area

B

Cerebral Cortex: Neurons in this area function as the interpretation center for the sense of smell.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area
D. Primary Motor Area
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area
I. Frontal Association Area

G

Cerebral Cortex: Neurons in this area function as the interpretation center for the sense of taste.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area
D. Primary Motor Area
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area
I. Frontal Association Area

I

Cerebral Cortex: Considered to be the site of higher intellectual abilities that are characteristic of humans.
A. Visual Area
B. Olfactory Area
C. Primary sensory Area
D. Primary Motor Area
E. Premotor Area
F. Broca's Area
G. Taste Area
H. Auditory Area
I. Frontal Association Area

A

DIENCEPHALON: Main sensory relay center between the brainstem and cerebral cortex.
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Epithalamus
D. Pineal Gland
E. Limbic system
F. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)

B

DIENCEPHALON: Regulates the pituitary, it is the source of hormones such as ADH and oxytocin and it is the integration center for temperature regulation, hunger, sex drive, and emotions such as fear and rage.
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Epithalamus
D. Pineal Gland
E. Limbic system
F. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)

C

DIENCEPHALON: Contains the choroid plexus of the third ventricle
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Epithalamus
D. Pineal Gland
E. Limbic system
F. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)

D

DIENCEPHALON: Main source of hormone melatonin.
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Epithalamus
D. Pineal Gland
E. Limbic system
F. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)

E

DIENCEPHALON: A group of structures that collectively play a role in emotional responses.
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Epithalamus
D. Pineal Gland
E. Limbic system
F. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)

F

DIENCEPHALON: Has two organs attached:
Neurohypophysis- Of neural origin
Adenohypophysis - Not of neural origin.
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Epithalamus
D. Pineal Gland
E. Limbic system
F. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)

F

DIENCEPHALON: This centers function is the production and secretion of several hormones.
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Epithalamus
D. Pineal Gland
E. Limbic system
F. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)

A

Cerebellum: Structure that connects the 2 cerebellar hemispheres.
A. Vermis
B. Arbor Vitae
C. Functions of cerebellum

B

Cerebellum: White matter or nerve tracts of the cerebellum
A. Vermis
B. Arbor Vitae
C. Functions of cerebellum

C

Cerebellum: The subconscious coordination of skeletal muscular activities. It is also involved with the sense of equilibrium.
A. Vermis
B. Arbor Vitae
C. Functions of cerebellum

A

Cerebellum - Brain Stem: Contains vital reflex centers such as the cardiac control center, and the vasomotor center.
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Reticular activating system
C. Pons

B

Cerebellum - Brain Stem: An activating or arousal system that is essential in maintaining wakefulness.
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Reticular activating system
C. Pons

C

Cerebellum - Brain Stem: Contains nerve tracts that connect the cerebellum with brain stem and nerve tracts. that connect upper and lower levels of CNS - also contains pneumotaxic and apneustic centers that modify respiratory rate.
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Reticular activating system
C. Pons

A

Cerebellum - Mid Brain - Corpus Quadrigemia: Serves as reflex centers for movements of eyeballs and head in response to visual stimuli.
A. Superior Colliculi
B. Inferior Colliculi

B

Cerebellum - Mid Brain - Corpus Quadrigemia: Serves as reflex centers for movement of head and trunk in response to auditory stimuli.
A. Superior Colliculi
B. Inferior Colliculi

B

The midbrain region of the cerebellum is made of of what structure?
A. Superior Colliculi
B. Corpus Quadrigemia
C. Inferior Colliculi

C

The 2 functions of this structure...
1. Serves as a pathway for impulses between body and Brain
2. The Center for spinal Reflexes
A. Brain
B. Gray Matter
C. Spinal Cord
D. CNS

B

Which type of nerve is known to come in all mixed variations
A. Cranial Nerves
B. Spinal nerves
C. Auditory Nerves

A

Where are the cell bodies of the motor fibers of spinal nerves located?
A. Gray matter of spinal Cord
B. White matter of spinal Cord
C. Dendrites

D

Where are the cell bodies of the sensory fibers of spinal nerves located
A. Gray matter
B. White matter
C. Dorsal Root
D. Dorsal Root Ganglion

A

The Dorsal Root Ganglion is also refereed to as the...
A. Spinal Ganglion
B. Cranial Ganglion
C. Spinal Root Ganglion

A

This is a network of interlacing nerve fibers from several spinal nerves.
A. Plexus
B. Choriod
D. Dendrite

A

This is formed from Nerve fibers from the 1st cervical spinal nerves. The nerves from this plexus supply the skin and muscles of neck and shoulders. One of the main nerves arising from this plexus is the phrenic nerve.
A. Cervical Plexus
B. Brachial Plexus
C. Lumbar Plexus
D. Sacral Plexus

B

This is formed from nerve fibers of the last 4 cervical spinal nerves and the 1st thoracic spinal nerve. Nerves from this plexus supply the skin and muscles of the upper limbs. One of the main nerves arising from this plexus is the axillary nerve.
A. Cervical Plexus
B. Brachial Plexus
C. Lumbar Plexus
D. Sacral Plexus

C

Formed from nerve fibers from the last thoracic spinal nerve and the 1st 4 lumbar spinal nerves. Nerves from this plexus supply the lower abdominopelvic region, buttocks, and anterior part of thigh. The main nerve arising from this plexus is the femoral nerve.
A. Cervical Plexus
B. Brachial Plexus
C. Lumbar Plexus
D. Sacral Plexus

D

Formed from the nerve fibers of the last 2 lumbar nerves and the 1st 4 sacral nerves. The nerves from this plexus supply the lower trunk, posterior surface of legs, and the feet. The main nerve arising from the plexus is the sciatic nerve.
A. Cervical Plexus
B. Brachial Plexus
C. Lumbar Plexus
D. Sacral Plexus

D

Nerve Plexuses: At Position No. 2
A. Lumbar Plexus
B. Sacral Plexus
C. Brachial Plexus
D. Cervical Plexus

C

Nerve Plexuses: At Position No. 3
A. Lumbar Plexus
B. Sacral Plexus
C. Brachial Plexus
D. Cervical Plexus

A

Nerve Plexuses: At Position No. 5
A. Lumbar Plexus
B. Sacral Plexus
C. Brachial Plexus
D. Cervical Plexus

B

Nerve Plexuses: At Position No. 6
A. Lumbar Plexus
B. Sacral Plexus
C. Brachial Plexus
D. Cervical Plexus

A

This consists of motor nerve fibers that transmit nerve impulses to the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands of the body.
A. Autonomic Nervous System
B. Central Nervous System
C. Peripheral Nervous System

A D

Choose the two divisions of the Autonomic nervous system
A. Sympathetic
B. Limbic
D. Parasympathetic
E. Ganglionic

A C

Choose the two Spinal nerves involved in the Autonomic nervous system.
A. Lumbar
B. Spinal
C. Thoracic
D. Sacral
E. Brachial

C

This is the site where sympathetic preganglionic and sympathetic postganglionic neurons synapse
A. Neuron
B. Post ganglionic sympathetic chain
C. Sympathetic chain of ganglia and collateral ganglia
E. Preganglionic chain of post sympathis

C

Which are the locations of the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons?
A. Pre: From Auditory meatus to sympathetic/Post: from sympathetic and collateral to Neurotransmitter.
B. Pre: From Lumbar to sympathetic/Post: from sympathetic and collateral to Brain.
C. Pre: From spinal cord to sympathetic or collateral/Post: from sympathetic and collateral to organ supplied.

D

Neurotransmitter substance released at the nerve endings within the Autonomic Nervous System:
A. Nor-epinepherine
B. Acetylcholine
C. Sympathin
D. Both A &C

A

Parasympathetic division of ANS: Nerves involved in this region?
A. Cranial And Sacral
B. Lumbar & Sacral
C. Cervical & Brachial

B

This is the site where parasympathetic preganglionic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons synapse.
A. Dorsal Root Ganglia
B. Terminal Ganglia
C. Synapse Ganglia

A

These run from the CNS to the terminal ganglia.
A. Preganglionic Neurons
B. Postganglionic Neurons

B

These run from the terminal ganglia to the organs supplied
A. Preganglionic Neurons
B. Postganglionic Neurons

A

Parasympathetic division of ANS: What neurotransmitter substance is released at the endings of parasympathetic nerves.
A. Acetycholine
B. Sympathin
C. Nor-epineferine

True

True or false. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves are considered antagonistic.

B

The Receptor, Neural Pathway, and Interpreting center are all part of...
A. Motor unit
B. Sensory Unit
C. Somatosensory Unit

A

Which Senses: Touch, pressure, heat, cold & Pain
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

A

Which Senses: Their receptors are widely distributed throughout the body.
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

A

Which Senses: Receptors are relatively simple structures
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

A

Which Senses: The sensory fibers of their neural pathway are found in both cranial and spinal nerves.
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

A

Which Senses: They don't have separate highly specific neural pathways.
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

B

Which Senses: Vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell, and taste.
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

B

Which Senses: Their receptors are located only in the head region.
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

B

Which Senses: receptors are complex structures
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

B

Which Senses: The sensory fibers of their neural pathway are found only in cranial nerves
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

B

Which Senses: They have separate highly specific neural pathways.
A. General Senses
B. Special Senses

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