Psychology: Chapter 2.01/2.02 -- Neuro-transmission & Neurotransmitters

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Neurons and their functions / states. Taken straight out of Brain Honey's Chapter 2.02 quiz.

Resting Potential

State during which a neuron contains more -ions inside than outside the cell. NOT firing.

All-Or-None Principle

Firing patterns of neuron transmitters; never "partially" firing

Synaptic Vesicles

Tiny sacks in a synaptic knob, releasing chemicals into the synapse

Synaptic Knob

Holds synaptic vesicles that release chemicals into the Synapse

Synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

Action Potential

When the electric potential in a cell is in action versus a resting state, the electrical charge reversal is known as the ____________

State of being positively charged, in comparison to charge outside the neuron

Causes neurotransmitters to be released into the synapse

Receptor Site

Like a locked door that only certain neurotransmitter "keys" can unlock; because ______s are holes in the surface of dendrites or certain cells of the muscles & glands that are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters

Dendrite

short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron

Excitatory Neurotransmitters

______ Make it more likely a neuron will send its message to other neurons

Inhibitory Neurotransmitters

______ Make it less likely a neuron will send its message to other neurons

Cuare

A poison that works by blocking receptor sites and acts as an antagonist for acetylcholine

Acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction

Convulsions, memory & learning

Functions triggered by Acetylcholine

Serotonin

a neurotransmitter that affects hunger, sleep, arousal & mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons

Sleep, hunger, arousal, mood

Functions affected by serotonin

Threshold

Point that must be exceeded to begin a given effect or result to elicit a response

Semi-Permeable / Selectively permeable

Permeable only to certain molecules

Polarization

When more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron; usually when inactive

Depolarization

sodium rushes into neuron through membrane, potassium ruses out; results in a change in charge; the refractory period of the neuron will prevent it from firing.

Repolarization; Refractory

As each section of the axon is depolarizing, the preceding section is going through the process of __(a)__. Also called the __(b)__ period, as it cannot fire again until it reaches resting potential

GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)

Inhibitory transmitter to the neurosystem

Release of ___ is stimulated by alcohol consumption; which is why too much alcohol is followed by the general inhibitory patterns associated with being drunkk.

Morphine

narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain and aid sleep. ___ and other opiates tap into receptor sites for endorphins

Endorphin

natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

Reuptake

Process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles; reabsorption of excess neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron

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