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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Stroke Volume (SV)
  2. Heart Murmurs
  3. Stretch and Contraction
  4. Regulation of Stroke Volume
  5. Chemical Regulation of the Heart
  1. a Chemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine
  2. b Heart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves
  3. c Skeletal muscle at rest is near its optimal length for max. tension
    Cardiac muscle at rest is shorter...
    -therefore inc. stretch inc. contractile force
    Anything inc. vol. or speed of venous return- inc. SV
    -HR, exercise, etc.
  4. d SV is the difference between
    -EDV- end diastolic volume
    -amt. of blood collects in the ventricle during diastole
    ESV- end systole volume
    -volume of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction
    EDV-ESV= SV
  5. e SV (ml/beat) = EDV (120 ml)- ESV (50ml/beat)
    Therefore SV= 70 ml/beat
    Each ventricle pumps 70 ml of blood
    About 60% of blood in its chamber per beat

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Blood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction
  2. Ventricular filling (mid-to-late diastole)
    -returning blood flowing into atria and opens AV valve to ventricles
    -semilunar valves closed (aortic and pulmonary)
    -70% of ventricular filling
    -AV valve begins to close- blood trapped in ventricle
    -Preparing for atrial systole
  3. Relaxation
    -filling the heart
  4. Back pressure of aortic and pulmonary valve must be over come by ventricle to open valves and eject blood
    -80 mm Hg (aorta)
    -8 mm Hg (pulmonary)
  5. Atrial- systole and diastole
    ventricular- systole and diastole

5 True/False questions

  1. Cardiac Cycle- Pressure and Volume changesPressure and Blood volume changes
    -left side of heart- 5x greater pressure than right side
    -regardless both ventricles pump the same volume of blood per beat

          

  2. Cardiac Cycle- DurationBlood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction

          

  3. Heart sounds at thoraxLub-dub lub-dub lub-dub
    -heart valves closing
    Pause- represents quiescent period
    First sound-
    -start of systole- vent. pressure rises above atrial pressure
    -louder and longer than the second sound
    Second sound-
    -short, sharp sound of the semilunar valves snap shut
    -at the start of ventricular diastole
    -Note: aortic valve closes before pulmonary valve- can distinguish these by sound

          

  4. Cardiac PressuresRight side of heart- pulmonary side
    -systole- 24 mm Hg
    -diastole- 8 mm Hg
    Left side of heart- aortic side
    -systole- 120 mm Hg
    -diastole- 80 mm Hg

          

  5. Preload- Stretch of Cardiac Muscle"Frank- Starling Law" of the heart
    -Factor controlling SV is preload
    -Preload- or degree of stretch before the muscle contracts
    -Why?
    Stretch muscle fiber (and sarcomeres) inc. numbers of active across bridge (actin/myosin)
    All muscle if stretched is going to have a better contraction
    More muscle fibers stretched greater the force of contraction

          

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