NAME: ________________________

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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Contractility
  2. EDV and ESV parameters
  3. Regulation of Stroke Volume
  4. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 3 (Ventricular Systole)
  5. Complete Cardiac Cycle
  1. a SV is the difference between
    -EDV- end diastolic volume
    -amt. of blood collects in the ventricle during diastole
    ESV- end systole volume
    -volume of blood remaining in ventricle after contraction
    EDV-ESV= SV
  2. b Contractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility
  3. c Ventricular Systole
    -atria relaxed- ventricles start contraction phase
    -ventricular pressure rises rapidly
    -Back pressure closes the AV valves
    -"isovolumetric Contraction Phase"
    -briefly ventricle closed off chambers and blood vol. is constant
    -Ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in arteries
    -semilunar valves are forced open
    -ends isovolumetric contraction phase
    -ventricular ejection phase
    -blood leaves ventricle and enters aorta and pulmonary trunk
    - aortic pressure reaches 120 mmHG
    -In left side of heart
  4. d Atrial- systole and diastole
    ventricular- systole and diastole
  5. e EDV- two parameters (120 ml)
    1. length of ventricle diastole- how long is vent. relaxing?
    2. Venous pressure- how much pressure is there to bring blood into ventricle?
    ESV- two parameters(50 ml)
    1. atrial BP
    2. force of vent. contraction

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Chemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine
  2. Blood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction
  3. "Frank- Starling Law" of the heart
    -Factor controlling SV is preload
    -Preload- or degree of stretch before the muscle contracts
    -Why?
    Stretch muscle fiber (and sarcomeres) inc. numbers of active across bridge (actin/myosin)
    All muscle if stretched is going to have a better contraction
    More muscle fibers stretched greater the force of contraction
  4. Sympathetic reflex caused by...
    -inc. in venous return
    -blood congestion in the atria
    Stretching of the atrial walls inc. HR and force by...
    -directly stimulating the SA node
    -stimulating by baroreceptors in the atria (pressure receptors)
    -triggers adjustment- inc. symptoms/stimulation of the heart
  5. Autonomic NS Regulation (extrinsic factor regulating the heart)
    Under stress, fright, anxiety, excitement
    -sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine
    -binds to B1- andrenergic receptors
    -causes threshold to be reached quicker- pacemaker fires more rapidly faster beat

5 True/False Questions

  1. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 2 (Ventricular Filling)Ventricular Systole
    -atria relaxed- ventricles start contraction phase
    -ventricular pressure rises rapidly
    -Back pressure closes the AV valves
    -"isovolumetric Contraction Phase"
    -briefly ventricle closed off chambers and blood vol. is constant
    -Ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in arteries
    -semilunar valves are forced open
    -ends isovolumetric contraction phase
    -ventricular ejection phase
    -blood leaves ventricle and enters aorta and pulmonary trunk
    - aortic pressure reaches 120 mmHG
    -In left side of heart

          

  2. DiastoleContraction
    - ejection of blood

          

  3. True or False: semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves are closed during isovolumetric contraction phase?During Ventricular Systole
    1. Atria is in diastole and fills
    2. Intra-atrial pressure inc. b/c atria filling
    3. Pressure in atria forces AV valves open- ventricular filling begins
    4. Atrial pressure drops and vent. pressure rises completing the cycle

          

  4. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 1(Atrial Systole)Ventricular Systole
    -atria relaxed- ventricles start contraction phase
    -ventricular pressure rises rapidly
    -Back pressure closes the AV valves
    -"isovolumetric Contraction Phase"
    -briefly ventricle closed off chambers and blood vol. is constant
    -Ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in arteries
    -semilunar valves are forced open
    -ends isovolumetric contraction phase
    -ventricular ejection phase
    -blood leaves ventricle and enters aorta and pulmonary trunk
    - aortic pressure reaches 120 mmHG
    -In left side of heart

          

  5. Name 1 important intracellular parameter that can inc. contractilitySkeletal muscle at rest is near its optimal length for max. tension
    Cardiac muscle at rest is shorter...
    -therefore inc. stretch inc. contractile force
    Anything inc. vol. or speed of venous return- inc. SV
    -HR, exercise, etc.

          

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