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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Why is presure 5x greater on the left side of the heart
  2. Complete Cardiac Cycle
  3. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 2 (Ventricular Filling)
  4. Contractility
  5. Heart Murmurs
  1. a Heart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves
  2. b Atrial- systole and diastole
    ventricular- systole and diastole
  3. c Higher pressure is required to move through entire body. Right side pumps only to the lungs
  4. d Contractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility
  5. e Ventricular filling (mid-to-late diastole)
    -returning blood flowing into atria and opens AV valve to ventricles
    -semilunar valves closed (aortic and pulmonary)
    -70% of ventricular filling
    -AV valve begins to close- blood trapped in ventricle
    -Preparing for atrial systole

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Ventricular Systole
    -atria relaxed- ventricles start contraction phase
    -ventricular pressure rises rapidly
    -Back pressure closes the AV valves
    -"isovolumetric Contraction Phase"
    -briefly ventricle closed off chambers and blood vol. is constant
    -Ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in arteries
    -semilunar valves are forced open
    -ends isovolumetric contraction phase
    -ventricular ejection phase
    -blood leaves ventricle and enters aorta and pulmonary trunk
    - aortic pressure reaches 120 mmHG
    -In left side of heart
  2. CO (ml/min)= HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat)
    Normal blood volume- 5 Liters
    Entire blood volume through heart every minute
    Co is highly variable
    -altered by SV or HR or both
    Cardiac Reserve
    -maximal CO- Resting CO
    -Cardiac reserve (normally) 4-5 times greater than resting CO
    -Athletes about 7x greater than resting CO
  3. Ions influencing heart function
    -calcium
    -patients w/ hypocalcemia (low calcium)
    -depresses HR
  4. Atrial Systole- depolarization atria contracts
    -compesses blood in the chambers
    -Atrial pressure forces remaining blood into ventricles
    -ventricles last of resting phase(diastole) w/ max blood volume termed "end diastolic volume" (EDV)
    -Atria relax and ventricles depolarize creates-QRS complex
    -Atrial diastole remains through the cycle
  5. True

5 True/False questions

  1. Regulation of Heart Rate- Autonomic NSAutonomic NS Regulation (extrinsic factor regulating the heart)
    Under stress, fright, anxiety, excitement
    -sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine
    -binds to B1- andrenergic receptors
    -causes threshold to be reached quicker- pacemaker fires more rapidly faster beat

          

  2. Stroke Volume (SV)SV (ml/beat) = EDV (120 ml)- ESV (50ml/beat)
    Therefore SV= 70 ml/beat
    Each ventricle pumps 70 ml of blood
    About 60% of blood in its chamber per beat

          

  3. Cardiac Cycle- Pressure and Volume changesBlood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction

          

  4. Stretch and ContractionContractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility

          

  5. Name 1 important intracellular parameter that can inc. contractilitySkeletal muscle at rest is near its optimal length for max. tension
    Cardiac muscle at rest is shorter...
    -therefore inc. stretch inc. contractile force
    Anything inc. vol. or speed of venous return- inc. SV
    -HR, exercise, etc.

          

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