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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Chemical Regulation of the Heart
  2. Cardiac Output- example
  3. Stretch and Contraction
  4. EDV and ESV parameters
  5. Regulation of HR- Parasympathetic
  1. a CO (ml/min)= HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat)
    Normal blood volume- 5 Liters
    Entire blood volume through heart every minute
    Co is highly variable
    -altered by SV or HR or both
    Cardiac Reserve
    -maximal CO- Resting CO
    -Cardiac reserve (normally) 4-5 times greater than resting CO
    -Athletes about 7x greater than resting CO
  2. b EDV- two parameters (120 ml)
    1. length of ventricle diastole- how long is vent. relaxing?
    2. Venous pressure- how much pressure is there to bring blood into ventricle?
    ESV- two parameters(50 ml)
    1. atrial BP
    2. force of vent. contraction
  3. c Parasympathetic NS
    -opposed to sympathetic responses
    -reduces HR when stress is relieved
    -Mechanism: Ach receptors(opens K+ channels)
    -Hyperpol. Cardiac cells
    -slows process down
  4. d Skeletal muscle at rest is near its optimal length for max. tension
    Cardiac muscle at rest is shorter...
    -therefore inc. stretch inc. contractile force
    Anything inc. vol. or speed of venous return- inc. SV
    -HR, exercise, etc.
  5. e Chemicals in blood and body fluids can alter cardiac function
    Hormones
    -epinephrine- released by adrenal medulla
    -enhances HR and contractility
    -Thyroxine- thyroid hormone
    -inc. metabolic rate and body heat
    -slow sustained inc. in HR
    -also enhances effects of epinephrine

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Sympathetic reflex caused by...
    -inc. in venous return
    -blood congestion in the atria
    Stretching of the atrial walls inc. HR and force by...
    -directly stimulating the SA node
    -stimulating by baroreceptors in the atria (pressure receptors)
    -triggers adjustment- inc. symptoms/stimulation of the heart
  2. Atrial- systole and diastole
    ventricular- systole and diastole
  3. Heart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves
  4. SV (ml/beat) = EDV (120 ml)- ESV (50ml/beat)
    Therefore SV= 70 ml/beat
    Each ventricle pumps 70 ml of blood
    About 60% of blood in its chamber per beat
  5. Contraction
    - ejection of blood

5 True/False questions

  1. Regulation of Stroke VolumeBoth divisions of the autonomic NS send impulses to the heart
    The dominant influence is inhibitory termed 'Vagal Tone'
    -cutting the 'vagal nerve' (parasympathetic input removed) causes a quick inc. in beats/min

          

  2. Chemical Regulation of the HeartIons influencing heart function
    -calcium
    -patients w/ hypocalcemia (low calcium)
    -depresses HR

          

  3. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 5- Ventricular SystoleDuring Ventricular Systole
    1. Atria is in diastole and fills
    2. Intra-atrial pressure inc. b/c atria filling
    3. Pressure in atria forces AV valves open- ventricular filling begins
    4. Atrial pressure drops and vent. pressure rises completing the cycle

          

  4. Heart sounds at thoraxHeart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves

          

  5. ContractilityContractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility

          

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