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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Cardiac Pressures
  2. Name 1 important intracellular parameter that can inc. contractility
  3. Contractility
  4. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 1(Atrial Systole)
  5. Cardiac Cycle- Phase 2 (Ventricular Filling)
  1. a Contractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility
  2. b Ventricular filling (mid-to-late diastole)
    -returning blood flowing into atria and opens AV valve to ventricles
    -semilunar valves closed (aortic and pulmonary)
    -70% of ventricular filling
    -AV valve begins to close- blood trapped in ventricle
    -Preparing for atrial systole
  3. c Right side of heart- pulmonary side
    -systole- 24 mm Hg
    -diastole- 8 mm Hg
    Left side of heart- aortic side
    -systole- 120 mm Hg
    -diastole- 80 mm Hg
  4. d Calcium
  5. e Atrial Systole- depolarization atria contracts
    -compesses blood in the chambers
    -Atrial pressure forces remaining blood into ventricles
    -ventricles last of resting phase(diastole) w/ max blood volume termed "end diastolic volume" (EDV)
    -Atria relax and ventricles depolarize creates-QRS complex
    -Atrial diastole remains through the cycle

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Parasympathetic NS
    -opposed to sympathetic responses
    -reduces HR when stress is relieved
    -Mechanism: Ach receptors(opens K+ channels)
    -Hyperpol. Cardiac cells
    -slows process down
  2. Ventricular Systole
    -atria relaxed- ventricles start contraction phase
    -ventricular pressure rises rapidly
    -Back pressure closes the AV valves
    -"isovolumetric Contraction Phase"
    -briefly ventricle closed off chambers and blood vol. is constant
    -Ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in arteries
    -semilunar valves are forced open
    -ends isovolumetric contraction phase
    -ventricular ejection phase
    -blood leaves ventricle and enters aorta and pulmonary trunk
    - aortic pressure reaches 120 mmHG
    -In left side of heart
  3. EDV- two parameters (120 ml)
    1. length of ventricle diastole- how long is vent. relaxing?
    2. Venous pressure- how much pressure is there to bring blood into ventricle?
    ESV- two parameters(50 ml)
    1. atrial BP
    2. force of vent. contraction
  4. Autonomic NS Regulation (extrinsic factor regulating the heart)
    Under stress, fright, anxiety, excitement
    -sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine
    -binds to B1- andrenergic receptors
    -causes threshold to be reached quicker- pacemaker fires more rapidly faster beat
  5. Heart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves

5 True/False questions

  1. Chemical Regulation of the HeartIons influencing heart function
    -calcium
    -patients w/ hypocalcemia (low calcium)
    -depresses HR

          

  2. Cardiac Cycle- Pressure and Volume changesBlood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction

          

  3. Heart sounds at thoraxLub-dub lub-dub lub-dub
    -heart valves closing
    Pause- represents quiescent period
    First sound-
    -start of systole- vent. pressure rises above atrial pressure
    -louder and longer than the second sound
    Second sound-
    -short, sharp sound of the semilunar valves snap shut
    -at the start of ventricular diastole
    -Note: aortic valve closes before pulmonary valve- can distinguish these by sound

          

  4. DiastoleContraction
    - ejection of blood

          

  5. Cardiac Cycle- DurationLength of cycle- .8sec
    -average 75 beats/min
    -atrial systole .1 sec
    -ventricular systole- .3 sec
    -remaining .4 total- heart relaxation termed "quiescent period"

          

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