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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Heart sounds at thorax
  2. Regulation of Heart Rate- Autonomic NS
  3. Contractility
  4. Cardiac Pressures
  5. Systole
  1. a Contraction
    - ejection of blood
  2. b Lub-dub lub-dub lub-dub
    -heart valves closing
    Pause- represents quiescent period
    First sound-
    -start of systole- vent. pressure rises above atrial pressure
    -louder and longer than the second sound
    Second sound-
    -short, sharp sound of the semilunar valves snap shut
    -at the start of ventricular diastole
    -Note: aortic valve closes before pulmonary valve- can distinguish these by sound
  3. c Right side of heart- pulmonary side
    -systole- 24 mm Hg
    -diastole- 8 mm Hg
    Left side of heart- aortic side
    -systole- 120 mm Hg
    -diastole- 80 mm Hg
  4. d Autonomic NS Regulation (extrinsic factor regulating the heart)
    Under stress, fright, anxiety, excitement
    -sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine
    -binds to B1- andrenergic receptors
    -causes threshold to be reached quicker- pacemaker fires more rapidly faster beat
  5. e Contractility
    -inc. in contractile strength independent of muscle stretch and EDV
    More vigorous contractions due to...
    -greater Ca++ influx- from extracellular and SR
    Results- more blood ejected from the heart (lower ESV and greater SV)
    Contractility due to inc. sympathetic stimulation
    Norepinephrine and the B1 adrenergic receptors
    -stimulates whole process
    -inc. amt. of Ca+ in cell- how sympathetic NS inc. contractility

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Isovolumentric Relaxation(early diastole)
    -Following the T wave(repol. of vent.) ventricles relax- not compressed
    -"end systole volume" (ESV)
    -blood that did not get pumped out- remaining in vent.
    -blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk back flows closing semilunar valves
    -so blood can't go back into heart
    -closed semilunar valves cause a short rise in aortic pressure as blood rebounds off closed valve
    -creates the dicrotic notch
    -Isovolumetric relaxation- ventricles again totally closed off
  2. Higher pressure is required to move through entire body. Right side pumps only to the lungs
  3. Blood flow through the heart is controlled by pressure
    Blood flows along a pressure gradient
    -always high to low pressure
    Keeps blood flowing in only 1 direction
  4. Heart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves
  5. Pressure and Blood volume changes
    -left side of heart- 5x greater pressure than right side
    -regardless both ventricles pump the same volume of blood per beat

5 True/False questions

  1. Stretch and ContractionLength of cycle- .8sec
    -average 75 beats/min
    -atrial systole .1 sec
    -ventricular systole- .3 sec
    -remaining .4 total- heart relaxation termed "quiescent period"

          

  2. Stroke Volume (SV)Contraction
    - ejection of blood

          

  3. Cardiac Output- exampleCO (ml/min)= HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat)
    Normal blood volume- 5 Liters
    Entire blood volume through heart every minute
    Co is highly variable
    -altered by SV or HR or both
    Cardiac Reserve
    -maximal CO- Resting CO
    -Cardiac reserve (normally) 4-5 times greater than resting CO
    -Athletes about 7x greater than resting CO

          

  4. EDV and ESV parametersHeart Murmurs- leaky valve
    -blood generally flows silently
    W/ heart valve promblems
    -blood creates a "swishing" sound as it leaks backward or regurgitates through incompletely closed valves

          

  5. Cardiac OutputRight side of heart- pulmonary side
    -systole- 24 mm Hg
    -diastole- 8 mm Hg
    Left side of heart- aortic side
    -systole- 120 mm Hg
    -diastole- 80 mm Hg

          

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