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the process by which an atom or molecule gain an electron is a. reduction b. catalysis c. oxidation d. photosynthesis

reduction

which of these is an electron carrier molecule; a. NAD+ b. ATP c. adenylate kinase d. carbonic acid

NAD+

the first stage of cellular respiration, called ____, takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell and needs no oxygen; a. glycolysis b. krebs cycle c. photorespiration d. oxidation

glycolysis

electrons generated from the krebs cycle go next to the; a. fermentation pathway b. formation of alcohol c. electron transport chain d. fluid portion of the mitochondrion

electron transport chain

when substrate level phosphorylation occurs it means that; a. NAD is converted into NADH b. ATP is converted into ADP plus a phosphate group c. ADP is converted into ATP by addition of a phosphate group d. AMP is converted into NAD by adding a phosphate group e. NADH is converted into NAD + H

ADP is converted into ATP by addition of a phosphate group

when ATP is made during glycolysis and the kreb's cycle, it is by; a. oxidative phosphorylation b. substrate-level phosphorylation c. photophosphorylation d. chemiosmosis e. ATPase

substrate-level phosphorylation

under what environmental conditions do yeast carry out fermentation; a. absence of oxygen b. high temperature c. low pH d. high osmotic pressure e. all choices

absence of oxygen

which is incorrect aout anaerobic respiration; a. some organisms use organic molecules as final electron acceptors b. anaerobic respiration consumes a small amount of oxygen c. it allows cells to continue to produce ATP through glycolysis d. oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and krebs cycle e. krebs cycle and electron transport chain

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and krebs cycle

what is the fate of NADH and FADH2 made during the first stages of aerobic respiration; a. they carry electrons to the electron transport chain b. they carry electrons to water c. they carry electrons to acetylaldehyde producing ethanol or lactic acid d. they carry them to the calvin cycle to reduce carbon dioxide e. they carry electrons to the krebs cycle

they carry electrons to the electron transport chain

which stage of cell respiration makes the majority of ATP; a. glycolysis b. krebs cycle c. electron transport chain d. fermentation e. they all produce the same aount

electron transport chain

how many net ATP are made in glycolysis; a. 1 b. 2 c. 6 d. 34 e. 38

2

glycolysis takes place in the ___, and the krebs cycle and electron transport chain take place in the ____. a. mitochondrial mix; inner mitochondrial membrane b. cytoplasm; endoplasmic reticulum c. inter membrane space of mitochondria; mitochondrial matrix d. cytoplasm; mitochondria e. mitochondria; cytoplasm

cytoplasm, mitochondria

depending on your body's needs, acetyl-CoA is either directed into the krebs cycle or; a. channeled into fat synthesis b. fermented into alcohol c. sent back to glycolysis d. sent to the electron transport chain e. fermented to lactic acid

channeled into fat synthesis

which of the following is (are) products of the krebs cycle; a. CO2 & ATP b. CO2, ATP & FADH2 c. ATP & NADH d. CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH2 e. ATP, NADH, FADH2

CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH2

cellular respiration; a. oxidizes glucose & reduces oxygen b. oxidizes oxygen & reduces glucose c. releases energy & reduces water d. requires energy & releases NADH e. releases energy & oxyfen

oxidizes glucose & reduces oxygen

the process by which an atom or molecule loses and electron is; a. reduction b. catalysis c. oxidation d. photosynthesis

oxidation

during fermentation in yeast, acetaldehyde accepts a hydrogen atom from NADH and is converted to ___

ethanol

common endproducts of fermentation include___ & ___.

alcohol and lactic acid

the second stage of cellular respiration, ___, takes place in the mitochondria.

krebs cycle

__ molecules of ATP are generated from the complete cellular respiration of one molecule of glucose

32-36

the krebs cycle turns__ times per glucose

2

electrons are often transferred with__

hydrogen

when an atom gains and electron, is is said to be ___

reduced

why do oxidation and reduction always take place together

you oxidize one molecule to reduce another molecule

how much of the radiant energy from the sun is incorporated into organic compounds in the process of photosynthesis; a. almost 90% b. 50% c. 25% d. 1% or less

1% or less

the full range of energy in sunlight can best be described as; a. electromagnetic radiation b. visible light c. ultraviolet light d. infrared radiation

electromagnetic radiation

during photosynthesis, ATP molecules are generated by; a. the calvin cycle b. chemiosmosis c. the splitting of water d. light striking the chlorophyll molecules

chemiosmosis

the overall purpose of the calvin cycle is to; a. generate molecules of ATP b. generate NADP c. give off oxygen for animal use d. build organic (carbon) molecules

build organic (carbon) molecules

light energy arrives at earth in little light packets called; a. rays b. photons c. light rays d. wavelengths

photons

most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosynthesis. from which of the following molecules is the oxygen derived; a. carbon dioxide b. water c. glucose d. chlorophyll e. NADH

water

which is incorrect about photosynthesis; a. the light reactions take place in the cytoplasm and the light independent reactions take place in the chloroplast b. the light independent reactions don't require light but can occur in its presence c. the light independent reactions produce NADPH and ATP d. the light independent reactions release oxygen e. photosystems act as antenna to capture photons

the light reactions take place in the cytoplasm and the light independent reactions take place in the chloroplast.

the fluid portion of the chloroplast is called the; a. matrix b. stroma c. cytoplasm d. gel e. thylakoid

stroma

how many turns of the calvin cycle are needed to make one glucose molecule; a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 5 e. 6

6

after the phosphate bonds are broken in ATP in the calvin cycle, what happens to the ADP; a. it evaporates from the cell b. it is used in cellular respiration c. it breaks down further into AMP plus phosphate d. it is recycle back to the light dependent reactions e. it is reused again in the calvin cycle, losing another phosphate

it is recycled back to the light dependent reactions

the most abundant protein on earth is; a. cellulose b. rubisco c. ATPase d. NADPH e. chlorophyll

rubisco

after hydrogens and electrons are stripped from NADPH, NADP+; a. is sent to the electron transport chain of cellular respiration b. is broken down further ti NAD plus phosphate in the calvin cycle c. is sent to the krebs cycle d. is recycled back to the light dependent reactions e. evaporates the cell

is recycled back to the light dependent reactions

the energy to power the calvin cycle comes from; a. cellular respiration b. the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis c. the light independent reactions of photosynthesis d. oxygen e. chlorophyll

the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis

the substrates for photosynthesis are; a. water & oxygen b. oxygen & carbon dioxide c. water & carbon dioxide d. ATP & oxygen e. glucose & carbon dioxide

water & carbon dioxide

the main products of photosynthesis are; a. glucose & oxygen b. glucose & carbon dioxide c. carbon dioxide & water d. water & oxygen e. ATP & oxygen

glucose & oxygen

one turn of the calvin cycle produces one molecule of; a. glucose b. oxygen c. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate d. rubisco e. 3-phosphoglycerate

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

___, which is provided by the photosystem, provides a source of hydrogen and the energetic electrons needed to bind them to carbon atoms.

NADPH

the internal membranes within the chloroplast are organized into flattened sacs called ___.

thylakoids

the molecule that supplies energy in the body is ___.

ATP

thylakoids are stacked on top of one another into little piles called ___.

grana

the portion of electromagnetic spectrum visible to the human eye is known as ___.

visible light

explain the role that water plays in the light-dependent reactions.

Water splits to use hydrogens and the byproduct is oxygen.

how are photosynthesis and cellular respiration intimately related?

they are exact opposites.

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