CH-8 Socioemotional Development In Early Childhood

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from Lifespan Development 13th Ed. Santrock

The child's cognitive representation of self, the
substance and content of the child's self-conceptions is know as _______.

self understanding

Development that involves thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people is known as _________.

moral development

The first stage of moral development in Piaget's Theory, occurring form approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world removed from the control of people is known as ________.

heteronomous morality

What is Piaget's Theory, displayed by children 10 and older. The child becomes aware the rules and laws are created by people and that in judging actions, one should consider intentions and well as consequences?

autonomous morality

The concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately is called ______.

immanent justice

An internal regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves an integration of moral thought, feeling and behavior is known as _____.

conscience

The sense of being male or female.

gender identity

A set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act and feel is called _____.

gender roles

Acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is known as _____.

gender typing

A theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women is called _____.

social role theory

A theory derived from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, by 5 or 6 and renounces it because of anxious feelings, subsequently identifying with the same-sex parent, and unconsciously adopting that parent's characteristics is known as ________.

psychoanalytic theory of gender

A theory that emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through observation and imitation of gender behavior and through rewards and punishments for gender appropriate and inappropriate behavior is known as ________.

social cognitive theory of gender

The theory that gender typing emerges as children develop gender schemas of their culture's gender-appropriate and gender inappropriate behavior is known as ________.

gender schema theory

Play that involves social interactions with peers.

social play

Play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports.

practice play

Failure to provide for a child's basic needs.

child neglect

Acts or omissions by parents or caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems .

emotional abuse

Play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol.

pretense / symbolic

Play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas. Play that occurs when children engage in
self-regulated creation of a product or a problem solution.

constructive play

Behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their exiting schemas

sensorimotor play

The infliction of physical injury, sometimes not intended to hurt the child, such as from excessive physical punishment.

physical abuse

Activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and often competition with one or more individuals.

games

What is the great governor of initiative?
a. ego
b. parents
c. unconscious desires
d. conscience

d. conscience

Olivia's parents openly value Olivia's participation in family conversations. Although she frequently misunderstands the topic, they answer her questions, help her to join in, or simply enjoy her sometimes fantastic ideas. According to Erik Erikson, these parents are encouraging ______
a. initiative
b. conscience
c. identification
d. self-concept

a. initiative

Preschoolers most often describe themselves in terms of their ________
a. thoughts
b. material characteristics
c. emotlons
d. relationships to other people

b. material characteristics

Which of the following is NOT a self-conscious emotion, which are emotions that become more common during early childhood?
a. fear
b. pride
c. embarrassment
d. shame

a. fear

Emotional development in 4- to 5-year-olds is characterized by all the following factors EXCEPT which one?
a. ability to reflect on emotions
b. ability to understand that similar situations can elicit different emotions in different people
c. ability to teach younger children how to manage their own emotions
d. awareness of managing emotions in order to meet social standards

c. ability to teach younger children how to manage their own emotions

Cesar has "emotion-coaching" parents. Therefore, compared to children in emotion-dismissing families, he is likely to have many advantages in his development. Which of the following would NOT be one of those advantages?
a. He may be better able to soothe himself when upset.
b. He may be better at focusing his attention.
c. He may have fewer behavior problems.
d. He may be better able to mask his negative emotions.

d. He may be better able to mask his negative emotions.

The __ is the moral element of personality.
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. autonomy

c. superego

If a person has the 2apacity for empathy, one can assume that he/she has the cognitive ability of:
a. conservation
b. logical reasoning
c . decentration
d. perspective taking

d. perspective taking

A major distinction between autonomous morality and heteronomous morality is that autonomous moral thinkers focus on the ______
a. consequences of behavior
b. intentions of someone who breaks a rule
c. way a specific behavior makes them feel
d. rewards moral behavior will bring

b. intentions of someone who breaks a rule

Piaget believed that the social understanding of autonomous children comes about through
a. parental modeling
b. what they learn in their cultural settings
c. biological maturation
d. the mutual give-and-take of peer relations

d. the mutual give-and-take of peer relations

When children are rewarded for behavior that is consistent with laws and social conventions, they are likely to repeat that behavior. This is the _____
a. Piagetian view of development
b. behavioral and social cognitive view of development
c. Freudian view of development
d. gender identification view of development

b. behavioral and social cognitive view of development

Social cognitive theorists say that the ability to resist temptation is closely_tied to the development of
a. empathic behavior
b. spontaneity
c. abstract reasoning
d. self-control

d. self-control

Which of the following is a good parenting strategy for encouraging moral behavior?
a. Punishing a child immediately when he/she does something wrong.
b. Ignoring misdeeds that the child does during the early childhood years.
c. Proactively averting potential misbehavior before it takes place.
d. Encouraging the child to explore misbehavior so that he/she gets it out of his/her system.

c. Proactively averting potential misbehavior before it takes place.

Gender identity refers to the _____
a. biological dimension of being male or female
b. social and psychological dimensions of being male or female.
c. sense of being male or female.
d. set of expectations that prescribe how males or females should think, act, or feel

c. sense of being male or female.

Female sex hormones are called __ ; male sex hormones are called _____
a. estrogens/androgens
b. testosterones/estrogens
c. androgens/testosterones
d. androgens/estrogens

a. estrogens/androgens

All the following are criticisms of the evolutionary view of gender role development EXCEPT which one?
a. Evolutionary hypotheses are speculative and not based on historical evidence.
b. Evidence from the fossil record contradicts evolutionary psychologists' arguments about gender roles.
c. People are not bound by behaviors that may have been adaptive in the distant past.
d. More attention should be paid to cultural and individual differences.

b. Evidence from the fossil record contradicts evolutionary psychologists' arguments about gender roles.

_______ states that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women.
a. The psychoanalytic theory of gender
b. The evolutionary psychology view of gender
c. The social cognitive theory of gender
d. Social role theory

d. Social role theory

Donna is given a toy ironing board for Christmas and is encouraged to set it up and "iron" while her mother does the ironing every week. When Donna plays with her brother's trucks, however, she is discouraged and told that girls don't care about trucks. This scenario best matches with which theory?
a. The psychoanalytic theory of gender
b. The evolutionary psychology view of gender
c. The social cognitive theory of gender
d. Social role theory

c. The social cognitive theory of gender

In terms of parental influences on their children's gender development, ________
a. fathers are more consistently given responsibility for physical care
b. mothers are more likely to engage in playful interaction
c. mothers are more likely to be given responsibility for ensuring that their children conform to cultural norms
d. fathers are more involved in socializing their sons than their daughters

d. fathers are more involved in socializing their sons than their daughters

Which of the following pieces of information about peer influences on gender development is FALSE?
a. Boys are more likely than girls to engage in rough-and-tumble play.
b. Girls experience more pressure to conform to a traditional female role than boys do to conform to a traditional male role.
c. Boys are more likely than girls to engage in organized group games.
d. Girls are more likely than boys to engage in "collaborative discourse."

b. Girls experience more pressure to conform to a traditional female role than boys do to conform to a traditional male role.

Dr. Van Cleef argues that gender typing can occur when children can understand social information regarding what is appropriate for males and females in their culture. Children are then motivated to act in the ways that conform to what they have seen around them and believe to be correct. Dr. Van Cleef is a _____ theorist.
a. cognitive developmental
b. psychoanalytic
c. gender schema
d. Piagetian

c. gender schema

All the following are characteristics of children of authoritarian parents EXCEPT which one?
a. They place firm limits and controls on the child.
b. They have weak communication skills.
c. They exhort the child to respect their work and effort.
d. They lack self-control.

d. They lack self-control.

Mr. Williams brought 3-year old Tanesha to day care. He explained to the teacher that Tanesha was rather sleepy this morning because she did not go to bed until 2 A.M. The teacher asked why, 'and Mr. Williams replied, "Oh, we don't like to put limits on our children-they need to experience life to the fullest. We play games, and she goes to sleep when she gets tired." It sounds as if Mr. Williams is:
a. an authoritarian parent
b. an authoritative parent
c. a neglectful parent
d. an indulgent parent

d. an indulgent parent

Which of the following is TRUE based on research on parenting styles conducted with diverse groups?
a. African-American children tend to have the worst outcomes when physical punishment is used.
b. Rather than suppressing the self, the use of the authoritarian style within Latino households may encourage a sense of self that IS embedded in the family.
c. Asian-American parents most often use an indulgent approach.
d. Across ethnic groups, authoritarian parenting yields negative child outcomes.

b. Rather than suppressing the self, the use of the authoritarian style within Latino households may encourage a sense of self that IS embedded in the family.

All the following statements regarding spanking are true EXCEPT which one?
a. Spanking provides children with an out-of-control model for handling stress.
b. A history of harsh physical discipline has been linked to adolescent depression.
c. Although spanking is related to higher levels of moral reasoning, it is also related to higher levels of aggressive behavior.
d. Spanking teaches children what not to do but does not provide discussion regarding desired
behaviors.

c. Although spanking is related to higher levels of moral reasoning, it is also related to higher levels of aggressive behavior.

"Coparenting" refers to:
a. allowing the child to sleep in bed with the parents.
b. the support that parents provide one another in jointly raising a child.
c. an equal sharing of parental duties.
d. None of these.

b. the support that parents provide one another in jointly raising a child.

"Child maltreatment" is preferred by developmentalists today instead of "child abuse" because:
a. child abuse" is a legal term, not a psychological term
b. they believe that changing the term is likely to reduce the incidence of abuse
c. the term "maltreatment" includes several different conditions, not just abuse
d. they want to be able to differentiate the two in terms of severity

c. the term "maltreatment" includes several different conditions, not just abuse

Four -year-old Natasha often arrives at preschool in an un-bathed state wearing dirty clothes. Natasha seems to be a victim of:
a. physical abuse
b. neglect
c. sexual abuse
d. emotional abuse

b. neglect

Maltreated children are likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT:
a. problems in peer relations
b. difficulty in adapting to school
c. a secure attachment pattern
d. poor emotion regulation

c. a secure attachment pattern

The most common parental reaction to sibling conflict in the 2- to 5-year-old range is:
a. intervening and helping them resolve the conflict.
b. doing nothing at all.
c. admonishing or threatening them.
d. separating them.

b. doing nothing at all.

First-born children tend to behave differently than later-born children in that they ____
a. are more adult-oriented
b. are more self-controlled
c. are more helpful
d. All of these

d. All of these

What element of parental working matters most for children's development?
a. Which parent works outside the home.
b. How many hours the parents work outside the home.
c.The nature of the parents' work.
d. Whether there is always one parent in the home with the child.

c.The nature of the parents' work.

The research on the effects of divorce on children suggests that:
a. almost children in divorced families do not develop significant adjustment problems.
b. children with a difficult temperament are better able to cope with their parents' divorce.
c. children who are very mature often take divorce the hardest because of their deeper understanding of the issues.
d. generally speaking, it is better for the children if parents remain in a marriage, even if there is a
great deal of conflict, because children need two parents at home.

a. almost children in divorced families do not develop significant adjustment problems.

Which of the following is NOT a recommendation from Galinsky and David (1988) for communicating with children about divorce?
a. Keep the door open for further discussion.
b. Create new routines to mark the change that has occurred.
c. Explain that the separation is not the child's fault.
d. Explain the separation.

b. Create new routines to mark the change that has occurred.

Joel is growing up with homosexual parents: two fathers. On the basis of the research in the chapter, what can we expect for Joel?
a. He will be more likely to be homosexual himself.
b. He will likely be unpopular and teased mercilessly by his peers.
c. He will be more likely to develop a major depressive disorder than other children will.
d. He will likely be similar to children who are 'being raised by heterosexual parents.

d. He will likely be similar to children who are 'being raised by heterosexual parents.

All of the following are factors that affect how ethnic minority families deal with stress EXCEPT:
a. how many relatives they have in this country
b. their socioeconomic status
c. their national origin
d. how long the family has been in this country

a. how many relatives they have in this country

It is more common for low-income families than middle or upper-income families to ____
a. use a conversational, less directive style with their children
b. use physical punishment with their children
c. use a democratic style in which children are seen as equals
d. encourage their children's initiative and delay of gratification

b. use physical punishment with their children

One of the most important functions of the peer group is to
a. foster love and understanding
b. act as a surrogate for the parents
c. teach the importance of friendship
d. teach about the world outside the family

d. teach about the world outside the family

Regarding play, Piaget believed:
a. that children's cognitive development constrains the way they play
b. that play is a high-pressure atmosphere in which children perform newly acquired skills
c. that play advances children's cognitive development
d. Both a and c

d. Both a and c

Practice play differs from sensorimotor play in that practice play _____
a. is most common in the infancy stage of development
b. involves coordination of skills
c. revolves around the use of symbols
d. is done for its own sake

b. involves coordination of skills

Four-year-old Nellie grabs some spoons and begins to examine her dolls with them, saying aloud, "I'm the doctor!" She is engaging in:
a. Social play
b. A game
c. Pretense/symbolic play
d. Sensorimotor play

c. Pretense/symbolic play

Research concerning children's TV watching shows that:
a. children should not be allowed to watch television unless supervised by an adult
b. there is no relationship between watching violence on television and aggressive behavior
c. children who watch violence on television get it out of their systems and are less likely to fight
d. children who view violence on television are more likely to engage in aggressive behavior

d. children who view violence on television are more likely to engage in aggressive behavior

T/F: During the period of initiative vs guilt, children begin to internalize what happens around them and will observe their own behavior and punish themselves. This can lead to their experiencing high levels of guilt that can lower their self-esteem.

True

T/F: 4-year-olds can understand that people may make statement that aren't true.

True

T/F: The heteronomous moral reasoner believes in "imminent justice," the idea that any time he or she does something bad; the deed will always be met with punishment, even if no one saw the transgression.

True

T/F: Piaget argued that parents are the main source of children's advancements in their moral reasoning.

False

T/F: Evolutionary psychology argues that females have evolved a preference for successful, ambitious men who can provide them with the resources they need for survival.

True

T/F: In social role theory, power and status differentials throughout history are used to explain current gender differences found in most societies.

True

T/F: Fathers are likely to treat boys and girls similarly, whereas mothers are likely to treat sons and daughters very differently.

False

T/F: Observational studies of girls and boys show that boys tend to be more solitary than girls, and girls tend to play in large groups.

False

T/F: Girls tend to be much more constricted by gender-role expectations than boys are.

False

T/F: Parents who are busy can still provide high-quality educational experiences for their children by, for example, sitting babies down to listen to Mozart CDs while the parents do household chores and reading young children "One Minute" books.

False

Around the world, the authoritative parenting style has been adopted as the most desirable approach to raising children.

True

T/F: Asian American parents praCtice a parenting style called "training," which is very cold and distant. It has been related to children's acting out aggressively.

False

T/F: Research on abusive parents has found that they tend to have personality disorders and exhibit sadistic attitudes toward people in general.

False

T/F: Five-year-old Veronica's parents often go to the mall for a couple of hours and leave her at home watching TV. They love Veronica dearly and see no harm in doing this because nothing bad has ever happened. However, legally, this would be a case of child neglect.

True

T/F: About 80 percent of American children have one or more siblings.

True

T/F: There is considerable similarity in how positive sibling relationships are.

True

T/F: Research shows that children who have no siblings tend to be spoiled and self-centered.

False

T/F: Large and extended families are more common among minority groups than among the White majority.

True

T/F: Children find imaginative play very entertaining and fun, but it serves no real developmental purpose.

False

T/F: Television can have a negative influence on children because it often presents them with unrealistic and stereotypical views of the world.

True

T/F: Television viewing has been linked to increased aggressive behavior, but unfortunately it has not been found to be linked to increased prosocial behavior.

False

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