The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
The old order before the Revolution in France
Fees that peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop and winepress
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
Charles "Turnip" Townsend
Learned from the Dutch how to cultivate sandy soil with fertilizers. also instituted crop rotation, using wheat, turnips, barley, and clover
forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
were created due to large amounts of abandoned children, they would live there until they grew up or died
segregated Jewish areas
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
cossack that led a peasant rebellion in Russia in the 1770s.
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
English artist noted for a series of engravings that satirized the affectations of his time (1697-1764)
7 Years' War
Fought in both continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in Indian and North America
The Middle Passage was part of the Atlantic Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas. Most were taken to the sugar plantations, which led to the rise of African slave trade.
Balance of power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.
gold or silver in bars or ingots
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
France and Austria, traditional enemies, now allied against Prussia-Britain, traditional ally of Russia, supported Prussia-bloodiest war since 30 Yrs War
the freeing of slaves
system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
ships sent from Seville maintained Spain's trade monopoly, commercial vessels carried merchandise from Spain to a few ports in America, after selling goods ships were loaded with gold & silver and returned to Spain, system worked imperfectly, trade outside it was illegal
the lowland region of western Europe on the North Sea: Belgium and Luxembourg and the Netherlands
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
War of Jenkins' Ear
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkins, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.
War of Austrian Succession
This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.