Science Vocabulary For Earthquakes And Volcanoes

19 terms by ashleygodwin 

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fault

surface along which rocks move when they pass their elastic limit and break

earthquake

vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault

normal fault

break in rock caused by tension forces, where rock above the fault surface moves down relative to the rock below the fault surface

reverse fault

break in rock caused by compression forces, where rock above the fault surface moves upward relative to the rock below the fault surface

strike-slip fault

break in rock caused by shear forces, where rocks move past each other without much vertical movement

seismic wave

wave generated by an earthquake

focus

in an earthquake, the point below Earth's surface where energy is released in the form of seismic waves

epicenter

point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus

seismograph

instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived

volcano

opening in Earth's surface that erupts sulfurous gases, ash, and lava; can form at Earth's plate boundaries, where plates move apart or together, and at hot spots

crater

steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent

vent

opening where magma is forced up and flows out onto Earth's surface as lava, forming a volcano

hot spot

the result of an unusually hot area at the boundary between Earth's mantle and core that forms volcanoes when melted rock is forced upward and breaks through the crust

batholith

largest intrusive igneous rock body that forms when magma being forced upward toward Earth's crust cools slowly and solidifies underground

dike

igneous rock feature formed when magma is squeezed into a vertical crack that cuts across rock layers and hardens underground

sill

igneous rock feature formed when magma is squeezed into a horizontal crack between layers of rock and hardens underground

volcanic neck

solid igneous core of a volcano left behind after the softer cone has been eroded

caldera

large, circular-shaped opening formed when the top of a volcano collapses

laccolith

dome shaped igneous intrusion that is smaller than a batholith

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