Psychology: Ch. 11 - Theories of Peronsality & Intelligence

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Personality

The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels.

Temperament

Characteristics we are born with and is the basis upon which ones personality is built.

Personality, character, temperament

There are four basic theories of personality however, before we discuss these four theories we need to understand what is meant by __________, __________, and __________.

Value Judgement

When one thinks of "__________ __________" one is thinking about character.

Psychoanalytic Perspective

Originated with the theories of Sigmund Freud. It focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts and desires in the development of personality.

Sigmund Freud

__________ __________'s theory came at a time in history when the predominant attitude towards sex was repressed.

Sex

Freud proposed that his patient's disorders result in most often from psychological conflicts related to __________.

Conscious Mind

The __________ __________ contains all the things that the person is aware of at any given moment.

Preconscious Mind

The __________ __________, according to Freud, is material that we are not currently aware of but can easily be recalled.

Unconscious Mind

The __________ __________ contains thoughts and feelings that are well below the surface of awareness and cannot normally be recalled.

Unconscious Mind

Freud believed that the __________ __________ was the most important factor in directing behavior.

ID, ego, super ego

In addition to the three divisions of the mind, Freud believed that personality could be divided into three components: the __________, the __________, and the __________.

ID

Freud named the most primitive part the __________ which is a Latin word that means "it". In Freud's theory, the __________ operates according to the pleasure principle. (ONE ANSWER)

Ego

According to Feud, rational and logical thinking and reasoning are controlled by the __________.

Super Ego

The __________ __________ acts as our conscious.

ID, super ego

The __________ demands immediate satisfaction, while the __________ __________ places restrictions on which behaviors are morally acceptable.

Ego

The __________ is left in the middle of the ID and Super Ego to come up with a compromise.

Defense Mechanism

__________ __________ is Freud's term for the unconscious efforts by the ego to deny or distort reality for the purpose of protecting itself when conflict becomes too intense.

Psychosexual Stages

For Freud, the three components of personality develop in a series of __________ __________. Each stage is focused on a erogenous zone or an area that produced pleasurable feelings.

Fixed

Freud believed that we would become __________ at that stage if our needs were delayed at a particular psychosexual stage.

Mouth

During the first 18 months of life the dominant source of sensual pleasure is the __________.

Oral Stage

Dan plays the trumpet, is on the debate team, bites his nails, and chews gum; Freud might say that Dan was fixated in the __________ __________.

Anal Stage

The second stage in Freud's theory is the __________ __________, which is 1 1/2 to 3 years of age. During this stage the anus serves as the erogenous zone.

Anal Stage

Toilet training takes place during the __________ __________. Steve is extremely uptight and compulsively neat and orderly. According to Freud, he became fixated at the __________ __________ of psychosexual development. (ONE ANSWER)

Phallic Stage

The third stage is the __________ __________ and is from 3 to 6 years of age. The __________ __________ focuses on the child's own genitals. (ONE ANSWER)

Phallic Stage

During the __________ __________ children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same sex parent.

Latency Stage

The fourth stage is the __________ __________, which is from 6 years of age to puberty. This stage consists of repressed sexual feelings. In this stage, children focus on intellectual, social, and physical development. Girls prefer to associate with girls and boys prefer to associate with boys.

Latency Stage

Jill is an 8-year-old girl who is having a birthday party. According to Freud, since Jill is in the __________ __________ you would expect more girls to be at her party than boys.

Genital Stage

The final stage is the __________ __________ and begins around the start of puberty. During the __________ __________ sexual interests reawaken and become stronger. (ONE ANSWER)

Carl Jung, Alford Adler, Carol Hornei

__________ __________, __________ __________, and __________ __________ are considered neo/freudian psychologists Each began their career as followers of Freud, but later disagreed with him on some basic principles.

Archetypes

John suggested the existence of a collective conscious that contains images shared by all people are called __________.

Hornei

__________ believes that being raised without love, affection, and security can cause one to develop a neurotic personality.

Freud

__________'s work has been greatly criticized since it was not based on scientific testing. __________ simply did case studies using his/her own patients. (ONE ANSWER)

Behaviorist

For the __________, personality is a set of learned responses or habits.

Self-efficiency

According to Albert Bandura, a persons belief about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors is known as __________.

Julian Rotter

__________ __________ believed that individuals have a relatively set way of responding and this behavior represented personality.

Locus Control

An important determinant of the individuals response was his or her sense of __________ of __________.

External

People who believe their destiny is in the hands of faith, luck, or chance have an __________ locus of control.

Humanistic Theory

__________ __________ is called the third force in personality development.

Humanistic Perspective

The __________ __________ focuses more on qualities that are considered uniquely human such as free will and subjective emotions.

Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow

__________ __________ and __________ __________ are the two best known humanistic psychologists.

Rogers, Maslow

Both __________ and __________ believed that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.

Self-actualizing tendency

Carl Rogers proposed that humans are always striving to fulfill their innate capacity in a process known as the __________ __________.

Unconditional Positive Regard

Carl Rogers emphasized excepting people for what they are not for what you would like them to be; this acceptance is termed __________ __________ __________. (UPR)

Conditional Positive Regard

Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experienced negative effects on their self-concept when they revieve __________ __________ __________. (CPR)

Humanistic Theory

A criticism of __________ __________ is that it paints to rosy a picture of humanity ignoring negative aspects of human nature.

Trait Theories

__________ __________ are less concerned with the explanation for personality development and changing personality than they are with describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description.

Trait

A __________ is a consistent enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving.

Gordon Allport

__________ __________ has identified approximately two hundred traits.

Gordon Allport

__________ __________ thought traits were wired into the nervous system.

Raymond Cattell

__________ __________ believed that their were 16 basic or source traits that directed personality.

16 Personality Factors

Someone who was interested in measuring a person's source traits as described by Cattell would use the __________ __________ __________ questionnaire. (16PF)

Openness, consciousness, extroversion, agreeableness, newrodisism.

The big five personality traits are: __________, __________, __________, __________, and __________.

Personality

Methods for assessing __________ have been developed based on specific theories of __________. (ONE ANSWER)

Eclectic

When assessing personality many professionals take the __________ view which means they use a variety of approaches.

Halo Effect

The tendency to form a favorable or unfavorable impression of someone at the first meeting is called the __________ __________.

Projective test

A person's responses to a __________ __________ are thought to reflect unconscious thoughts and feelings. __________ __________(s) are highly subjective and have very low reliability and balitity. (ONE ANSWER)

Direct Observation

In __________ __________ the psychologist observes behavior that may be related to a personality problem.

Rating Scale

In using a __________ __________ the psychologist simply counts behavior that may be related to psychological problems.

Personality Inventories

In __________ __________ the psychologist has the client respond to a series of questions that require a yes or no answer.

MMPI-2

The most common used personality inventory is __________.

Standardized

The main advantage of personality inventories over projective tests and interviews is inventories are __________.

Intelligence

__________ can be defined as the ability to learn from ones experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.

100

People began measuring intelligence through tests roughly __________ years ago.

France

In __________ in 1916, Alfred Binet developed the first formal test for intelligence.

Wechsler

In the United States, __________ intelligence tests are used more frequently than the Stanford-Binet tests.

Same

A test is said to be reliable if a person's score on a test is pretty much the __________ every time a person takes it.

Valid

A psychological test that measures what it intends to measure is said to be __________. (Valid or invalid)

95

Approximately __________% of all IQ scores fall between 70 and 130.

Culture fair

__________ __________ tests attempt to measure the intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was advised.

Mental Retardation

__________ __________ is now referred to as developmental delay and occurs in about 3% of the U.S. population.

Adapted behavior

One element in the formal definition of mental retardation is __________ __________ is severely below a level appropriate for a person's age.

70

Another element in the formal definition of mental retardation is an IQ below __________.

130

Individuals who receive scores of __________ or above on intelligence tests are referred to as gifted.

2

__________% of the population is described as gifted according to IQ standards.

Lewis Terman

__________ __________ conducted a longitudinal study of the traits of over 1,500 gifted children.

Behavioral Genetics

The field of __________ __________ is devoted to the study of just how much of personality is due to inherited traits.

More

The major conclusion about personality traits that emerged from the Minnesota twin study was that identical twins were __________ alike than any other type of sibling. (More or less)

Heredity

By comparing the IQ score of twins living together and apart we can see the influence of __________ over intelligence.

Hofstede

According to __________, an individualist culture is characterized by lose ties between individuals shared activities among friends autonomy and equality.

Individualist

The U.S. is the most __________ culture. (Think about individualism)

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