Chapter 11 SS

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William H. Crawford

presidential candidate in 1824, (Republican) wanted limited federal government and strong state powers

Henry Clay

presidential candidate in 1824, wanted high tariffs and a stronger national bank

Andrew Jackson

presidential candidate in 1824, spoke for Americans who had been left out of politics

John Quincy Adams

presidential candidate in 1824, believed that federal government should help the nation switch to and economy based on manufacturing

majority

more than half

plurality

largest single share

corrupt bargain

Henry Clay and Adams working together to convince the House to vote for Adams

Democratic-Republicans

supported Jackson and states' rights

National Republicans

supported Adams and a strong central government

mudslinging

attempts to ruin their opponent's reputation with insults

bureaucracy

nonelected officials carry out laws

spoils system

replacing government employees with supporters

caucus

system where major political candidates were chosen by committees made up of members of Congress

nominating conventions

state delegates choose the party's candidate

tariff

fee paid by merchants who imported goods

nullify

cancel a federal law the state considered unconstitutional

secede

break away from the Union

Trail of Tears

the Cherokee's forced journey west

guerilla

surprise attacks

Black Hawk

led a force of Sauk and Fox back to Illinois, however most were killed by state militia

Seminole

only Native Americans that successfully blocked their removal

Osceola

chief of the Seminole who went to war against the US

laissez-faire

principle that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy

Nicholas Biddle

president of the Bank of the United States

James Polk

beat Henry Clay for the presidency in 1844

Tariff of Abominations

the Southerners' name for the high tariff on imports from Europe

Nullification Act

passed by the South Carolina state legislature saying it would not pay "illegal" tariffs and threatened to secede from the Union

Indian Removal Act

allowed the federal government to pay Native Americans to move west

Whigs

new political party that participated in the election of 1836

Panic of 1837

land values fell, investments declined, banks failed, people lost confidence in the economic system

William Henry Harrison

elected president, but died of pneumonia four weeks after his inauguration in 1941

John Tyler

William Henry Harrison's running mate, first VP to become president, once a Democrat

General Winfield Scott

took his army to Georgia to remove the Cherokee and lead them west

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