paying part of the cost of a stock and borrowing the rest from brokers
camps built outside of major cities by people who had lost their homes during the great depression called hoovervilles because the people blamed pre. hoover foe their situition
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Election of 1932
FDR defeats Hoover in an election where the depression is the main issue
Popular vote electoral vote
Rep-hoover 15,761,841 59
Dem-FDR 22,821,857 457
National Recovery Act (NRA)
A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936
the farmers, who in the Great Depression, were forced to move, many moved to Oklahoma
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
-Construction projects - mandated no discrimination in employment-- preserve skills of artists, actors, writers
Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
Put 2.5 million men ages 18-25 to work; helped conserve natural resources; national parks and forests.
a critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system
Francis Townsend; federal government pay citizens over 60 a pension of 200$ a month; might lead to more spending => fear of a coalition against Roosevelt because of popularity of the idea
lawyer attack power of LA oil and chemical co LA governor, senator
Improved public education, roads, medical care
Equal treatment for African Americans in some area
Share the Wealth
Guarantee $2500 annual income per household and a home
Confiscate all fortunes in excess of $ 5 million
Tax at 100% annual incomes in excess of $ 1 million
Southern Tenant Farmers Union
help revive the United States' agricultural industry and to recharge the depressed economy.
Protest evictions, wages
Navaho vs Soil Conservation Service
SCC orders reduction of Navaho sheep herd in northren az
Sheep vs government water policies Lake Mead Boulder Dam
popular following (support?) for actions of bank robbers and other criminals targeting the wealthy
Bonnie and Clyde, John Dillenger, Pretty Boy Floyd
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
court packing scheme
Roosevelt tried to put an extra justice on the Supreme Court for every justice over 70 years old who wouldn't retire. These justices would be supporters of Roosevelt and there would be a maximum of 15 judges. The plan failed. Congress would not accept.
6/9 fifteen justices add 6 due to advanced ages