asexual reproduction used by some prokaryotes in which a cell divides into two genetically identical cells (used in cells lacking a nucleus because in order for mitosis to occur there must be a nucleus)
first stage of the cell cycle during which a cell grows, matures, and replicates its DNA.
first stage of mitosis during which the cell's chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
second stage of mitosis in which motor proteins pull sister chromatids to the cell's equator.
third stage of mitosis in which sister chromatids are pulled apart and microtubules, along with motor proteins, move the chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell.
last stage of mitosis in which nucleoli reappear. Two new nuclear membranes begin to form, but the cell has not yet completely divided.
a structure that forms between two groups of chromosomes of a plant cell during telophase.
organelle that plays a role in cell division and is made of microtubules.
structure containing DNA; structure into which a chromosome divides
a process during which chromosomal segments are exchanged between a pair of homologous chromosomes.
the structures containing genetic material that is passed from generation to generation of cells.
form of reproduction used by some prokaryotes in which the prokaryotic cells attach to each other and exchange genetic material.
having two copies of each chromosome.
a haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can combine with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg
produced during crossing over and during fertilization when random gametes combines (meiosis)
cell with half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell.
one of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent, that carries genes for a specific trait at the same location.
The process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during anaphase resulting in the production of genetically unique gametes.
division process occurring only in reproductive cells, in which one diploid cell produces four haploid cells that are not genetically identical.
second main stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's replicated DNA divides and two genetically identical diploid daughter cells are produced.
permanent change in a cell's DNA, ranging from changes in a single base pair to deletions of large sections of chromosomes.
newly generating DNA with DNA from different sources
when cells are replicated with exactly the same DNA.
the idea that life arises from nonliving things
fertilized cell formed when a sperm cell penetrates an egg
when eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells