Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

damage to C.N. VII can lead to what

Bell's palsy

sensory innervation to the face is via branches of which nerve

C.N. V

the trigeminal (C.N. V) nerve divides into three major branches emerging onto the face. what are they

- opthalmic
- maxillary
- mandibular

the ophthalmic nerve divides into even more branches, which include

- supraorbital
- supratrochlear
- infratrochlear
- external nasal
- lacrimal

the maxillary nerve divides into even more branches, which include

- zygomaticotemporal
- zygomaticofacial
- infraorbital

the mandibular nerve divides into even more branches, which include

- auriculotemporal
- buccal
- mental

the most frequently injured nerve with blow to the face

infraorbital nerve

trigeminal neuralgia (synonym)

Tic Doloureaux

sudden attacks of severe pain occurring in an area of sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve would indicate what condition

trigeminal neuraglia

list the areas affected by trigeminal neuraglia from most common to least common

maxillary > mandibular > opthalmic

sensory innervation of the posterior aspect of the neck and scalp is from the

dorsal primary rami of C2-C4 spinal nerves

which area does the greater occipital nerve (dorsal primary ramus of C2) innervate

occipital region

sternocleidomastoid
OINF

O: sternal head from the front of the manubrium, clavicular head form the medial third of the clavicle
I: lateral surface of mastoid process, lateral half of the superior nuchal line
N: accessory nerve (C.N. XI)
F: chief flexor of the head

torticollis (synonym)

wryneck

muscle affected from torticollis

sternocleidomastoid

what disorder can be described as a fibrous tissue tumor which develops at or shortly before birth

congenital torticollis

muscular torticollis is caused by

birth injury

what disorder occurs in adults and is due to abnormal tonicity and responds well to chiropractic care

spasmodic torticollis

trapezius
OINF

O: external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of the seventh cervical and all thoracic vertebrae
I: the lateral third of the clavicle, spine of the scapula, acromion process
N: accessory never (C.N. XI) and C3,C4
F: the upper portion elevates, the middle portion retracts, the lower portion depresses the scapula

which vein drains the face and scalp along with containing a large amount of cerebral blood

external jugular vein

formed immediately below the parotid gland by the union of which veins

external jugular vein;
- retromandibular vein
- posterior auricular vein

which vein runs downward and backward along the lateral surface of the sternocleidomastoid

external jugular vein

which vein empties into the subclavian vein

external jugular vein

what are the tributaries of the external jugular vein

- retromandibular vein
- posterior auricular vein
- posterior external jugular vein
- anterior jugular vein
- transverse cervical vein
- suprascapular vein

when does the external jugular vein become prominent

- congestive heart faliure (obstruction of the superior vena cava)
- opera singers and bagpipe players develop this due to intrathoracic pressure

where are superficial cervical lymph nodes found

along the external jugular vein, superficial to the sternocleidomastoid

what separates the posterior and anterior triangles of the neck

sternocleidomastoid

the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck are

anteriorly: posterior border of the SCM
posteriorly: anterior border of the trapezius
inferiorly: superior border of the middle third of the clavicle

the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck are

superiorly: inferior border of the mandible
anteriorly: anterior midline of the neck
posteriorly: anterior border of the SCM

the roof of the anterior triangle is formed by

- deep cervical fascia
- superficial cervical fascia
- platysma

subdivisions of the anterior triangle are

- submental triangle
- submandibular triangle
- carotid triangle
- muscular triangle

what is the important vascular triangle where the common carotid artery usually bifurcates

carotid triangle

the only one of the anterior triangle subdivisions to be unpaired

submental triangle

the boundaries of the submental triangle are

- left and right bellies of the digastric
- body of the hyoid bone

floor of the submental triangle

mylohyoid muscle

the boundaries of the submandibular triangle

- mandible
- anterior belly of digastric
- posterior belly of digastric

floor of the submandibular triangle

mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles

contents of the submandibular triangle

- submandibular gland
- internal carotid artery
- facial artery
- internal jugular vein
- glossopharyngeal (C.N. IX) and vagus (C.N. X) nerves

the boundaries of the carotid triangle are

- posterior belly of digastric
- superior belly of omohyoid
- anterior border of SCM

the floor of the carotid triangle

- portions of the thyrohyoid
- hyoglossus
- inferior and middle constrictor muscles

contents of the carotid triangle

- internal carotid arteries
- external carotid artery
- superior thyroid artery
- lingual artery
- facial artery
- tributaries to the internal jugular vein

the boundaries of the muscular triangle are

- superior belly of omohyoid
- anterior midline of the neck
- anterior border of SCM

floor of the muscular triangle

posterior layer of pretracheal fascia

contents of the muscular triangle

- sternohyoid
- sternothyroid
- thyroid gland
- trachea
- esophagus

list the four infrahyoid muscles

- omohyoid
- sternohyoid
- thyrohyoid
- sternothyroid

the superficial layer of the infrahyoid muscles is made up of

- omohyoid
- sternorhyoid

the deep layer of the infrahyoid muscles is made up of

- sternothyroid
- thyrohyoid

omohyoid
OINF

O: inferior belly, upper border of the scapula. superior belly, intermediate tendon
I: the body of the hyoid bone
N: ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
F: depresses the hyoid bone and larynx

sternohyoid
OINF

O: posterior surface of manubrium and medial end of clavicle
I: body of hyoid bone
N ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
F: depresses the hyoid bone and larynx

sternothryroid
OINF

O: posterior surface of manubrium, inferior to origin of the sternohyoid
I: oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage
N: ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
F: depresses the larynx

thyrohyoid
OINF

O: the oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage
I: body of hyoid bone
N: C1 via hypoglossal nerve
F: depresses hyoid bone

what occurs when the hyoid and larynx are depressed

- swallowing
- speech
- breathing
- when hyoid is fixed, digastric can depress mandible

what are the two layers of cervical fascia

- superficial
- deep

what are the four layers of the deep cervical fascia

- investing layer of the deep cervical fascia
- pretracheal fascia
- prevertebral fascia
- carotid sheath

this layer of fascia lies deep to the superficial cervical fascia and splits to enclose the SCM and trapezius

investing layer of the deep cervical fascia

this layer of fascia encloses the thyroid gland, trachea, and esophagus

pretracheal fascia

this layer of fascia encloses the vertebral column and the deep muscles of the back

prevertebral fascia

this layer of fascia is a cylinder of fascia which extends from the base of the skull to the root of the neck

carotid sheath

what structures are contained within the carotid sheath

- common carotid artery
- internal carotid artery
- internal jugular vein
- vagus nerve
- deep cervical lymph nodes

clinical significance of the fascial layers of the neck

- lubrication for gross movements of neck and swallowing
- adhesion can cause neck pain
- channel for infections to spread
- cancer involving deep cervical lymph nodes can compress the internal jugular vein

the opening through which structures of the neck pass into the thorax

thoracic inlet (superior thoracic aperture)

the boundaries of the thoracic inlet include

- first thoracic vertebra
- first ribs and their cartilages
- manubrium sterni

what is the shape of the thoracic inlet

kidney shaped

the arteries which pass through the thoracic inlet include

- brachiocephalic trunk
- left common carotid artery
- left subclavian artery
- internal thoracic artery

the veins which pass through the thoracic inlet include

brachiocephalic vein

the nerves which pass through the thoracic inlet include

- phrenic nerve
- vagus nerve
- recurrent laryngeal nerve
- sympathetic trunk

viscera which pass through the thoracic inlet include

- trachea
- esophagus
- cervical pleura
- apex of lung
- thymus

the thymus is part of which major system in the body

immune system

location of the thymus

behind (posterior to) the manubrium and the body of the sternum

which structure(s) are superior to the thymus

thyroid gland

which structure(s) are anterior to the thymus

- sternohyoid
- sternothyroid

blood supply to the thymus

internal thoracic artery

innervation of the thymus

from the stellate ganglion of the sympathetic trunk an vagus

which hormones does the thyroid gland produce

thyroxine and calcitonin

at which vertebral level does the thyroid gland reside

C5-T1

about 50% of thyroid glands have an extra lobe called

pyramidal lobe

a muscle that connects the isthmus of the thyroid gland with the hyoid bone

levator glandulae thyroideae muscle

arterial blood supply to the thyroid gland includes

- superior thyroid artery
- inferior thyroid artery

on the right side of the thyroid gland there is a third possible artery that supplies the thyroid gland that branches off of the brachiocephalic trunk

arteria thyroidea ima

venous blood supply to the thyroid gland includes

- superior thyroid vein
- middle thyroid vein
- inferior thyroid vein

innervation of the thyroid gland

superior, middle, and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia

abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland

goiter

goiter due to dietary deficiency of iodine

endemic goiter

symptoms are those of hypothyroidism

endemic goiter

goiter due to autoimmune disease

exothalmic goiter

symptoms are those of hyperthyroidism

exothalmic goiter

grave's disease (synonym)

exothalmic goiter

endocrine glands involved in calcium homeostasis

parathyroid glands

blood supply to the parathyroid glands

inferior and superior thyroid artery

nerve supply to the parathyroid glands

inferior or middle cervical sympathetic ganglia

factors contributing to the difficulty of thyroid surgery

- vascularity
- presence of recurrent laryngeal nerve
- damage to parathyroid

the posterior gap in the trachea is spanned by which muscle

trachealis muscle

bloody supply to the trachea

inferior thyroid artery

nerve supply to the trachea

recurrent laryngeal nerve

connects the pharynx to the stomach

esophagus

at which vertebral level does the esophagus begin

C6

the main arteries to the head and neck

left and right common carotid arteries

main source of blood to structures of the neck, face, and scalp

external carotid artery

enters through the carotid canal in the temporal bone to supply blood to the brain

internal carotid artery

the branches of the external carotid artery include

- superior thyroid artery
- ascending pharyngeal artery
- lingual artery
- facial artery
- occipital artery
- posterior auricular artery
- superficial temporal artery
- maxillary artery

the two branches of the external carotid artery that represent the terminal branches

superficial temporal and maxillary arteries

a baroreceptor that is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX)

carotid sinus; innervated by the carotid sinus nerve

a reddish-brown chemoreceptory located within the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and is innervated by the carotid sinus branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX)

carotid body

usually the largest of the jugular veins and begins at the jugular foramen as the direct continuation of the sigmoid sinus

internal jugular vein

drains into the brachiocephalic vein

internal jugular vein

the dilation of the internal jugular vein at its origin below the jugular foramen

superior jugular bulb

tributaries of the internal jugular vein

- inferior petrosal sinus
- pharyngeal veins
- facial vein
- lingual vein
- superior thyroid vein
- middle thyroid vein

the dilation of the internal jugular vein near its termination into the brachiocephallic vein

inferior jugular bulb

misalignment of joint involving the articular eminence of the skull and the condylar process of the mandible

temporomandibular joint syndrome

the three large paired salivary glands

- submandibular
- parotid
- sublingual

part of a which gland is large and located within the submandibular triangle and in the submandibular fossa

superficial part of the submandibular gland

part of which gland is small and located superior to the mylohyoid

deep part of the submandibular gland

blood vessels found within the submandibular region

- lingual artery and vein
- facial artery and vein

lymphnodes found within the submandibular region

- submandibular lymph nodes
- submental lymph nodes

functions of the nasal cavity

- provide an airway
- olfaction
- warming and moistening inspired air
- cleansing inspired air

what divides the nasal cavity into right and left chambers

nasal septum

posterior apertures of the nasal cavity which open into the nasopharynx

choanae

the floor of the nasal cavity is formed by which bones. they also form the hard palate

- palatine part of maxilla
- horizontal plate of palatine bone

the roof of the nasal cavity is formed by which bones

- nasal
- frontal
- cribriform plate of ethmoid
- body of sphenoid

medial wall of nasal cavity

nasal septum

when the nasal septum does not lie in the median plane

deviated septum

causes of deviated septum

- congenital malformation
- birth injury
- trauma

when the septum is severely deviated it can cause

- breathing difficulties
- exacerbate snoring

lateral wall of the nasal cavity is formed by which bones

- nasal
- maxilla
- lacrimal
- ethmoid
- inferior nasal concha
- perpendicular part of palatine
- medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid

superior nasal choncha is part of which bone

ethmoid

middle nasal choncha is part of which bone

ethmoid

inferior nasal choncha is part of which bone

separate

functions of nasal chonchae

- increase surface area to help heat, moisten, and clean inspired air
- increase turbulence

a rounded projection into the middle meatus

ethmoidal bulla

connects the lacrimal sac of the orbit to the nasal cavity

nasolacrimal duct

a curved slit lying below the ethmoid bulla within the middle meatus

hiatus semilunaris

receives the openings of the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, and middle & anterior ethmoidal air cells

middle meatus

receives the opening of the posterior ethmoidal air cells

superior meatus

a small space located above and behind the superior nasal concha that receives the opening of the sphenoid sinus

sphenoethmoidal recess

the lower 2/3 of the nasal cavity

respiratory region

loss of olfaction

anosmia

the superior nasal concha and the upper 1/3 of the nasal septum make up

olfaction region

the primary blood supply to the nasal cavity

- sphenopalatine branch of the maxillary artery
- anterior ethmoidal branch of the ophthalmic artery

nose bleed, common due to rich blood supply

epistaxis

involves small branches in or near the vestibule, caused by minor trauma, low humidity

mild epistaxis

results from rupture of the sphenopalatine artery at one of its major anastomoses. caused by major trauma

severe epistaxis

where does lymph from the nasal cavity drain

deep cervical nodes

drains into the middle meatus via the frontonasal duct

frontal sinus

most prone to infection in this sinus because opening lies on medial wall about half way up, which leaves it poorly drained

maxillary sinus

the largest of the paranasal sinuses

maxillary sinus

only paranasal sinus that may be present during birth

maxillary sinus

consists of several groups of ethmoidal air cells

ethmoidal sinus

lies within th ebody of the sphenoid bone and poens into the phenoethmoidal recess

sphenoidal sinus

air cells that open into the superior meatus

posterior ethmoidal air cells

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set