Management review 3

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The demand, person, activity, or event that triggers an uncomfortable encounter is known as:

the stressor

The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequence that may occur as a result of stressful events is known as:

distress

The fight-or-flight stress response is most closely associated with which approach to stress?

homeostatic

An employee with a major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home Sunday night is likely to experience:

interrole conflict

All of the following are stress-related interpersonal demands of the workplace except:

intrarole conflict

Psychosomatic disorders

are physical ailments that begin in the mind

Three direct costs of organizational distress include:

participation problems, performance decrements, and compensation awards

Organizational costs of distress may take the form of all of the following except

sabotage

Self-reliance is a healthy, secure, _____ pattern of behavior

interdependent

Secondary prevention is intended to

alter or modify the individual's or the organization's response to a demand

Which of the following is an example of a programmed decision situation?

purchase of a new mainframe computer

The initial step in a problem solving, decision situation is

problem recognition

Intuition would be a major part of the input for a manager making what kind of decision?

non programmed

The rational model of decision making assumes

that the decision maker can calculate the probability of success for alternatives

In the rational model, the decision maker strives to

optimize

You are starting your senior year of college and look forward to graduation in May. An important task at hand is selecting courses for your final year of study. All but two of your courses are electives. Your course selections will most likely be made based on the

bounded rationality model

An important element of the bounded rationality model is

satisficing

Heuristics are:

shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity

Which decision-making model is the most realistic in portraying the managerial decision process?

bounded rationality

The cognitive style that exhibits a preference for data and a detailed, objective approach to decision making is:

sensing/thinking

Which of the following best represents the three reasons why managers may hang on to a losing course of action or escalate their commitment?

cognitive dissonance, overly optimistic, and illusion of control

Continuing to support a failing course of action is known as

escalation of commitment

The right side of the brain is best used for which type of activity or decision

develop visions and strategic plans

The stage of creativity where one engages in other activities while the mind considers the problem is:

incubation

An organization could increase creativity by doing which of the following

eliminate office walls and cubicles

Searching for the "right" answer and avoiding problems outside of our own expertise would be considered what type of problem for creativity?

mental locks

If a person can affect the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person, she has

influence

Enlarging an employee's zone of indifference is accomplished by:

the use of power

As a management trainee, you are assigned to a mentor and gain considerable insight into the nature of management and how to behave in different managerial situations. The relationship you have with the mentor is based on _____ power.

referent

Assume you are a senior accounting major. A friend who is taking a Principles of Accounting course seeks you out for tutorial assistance. This is an example of _____ power.

expert

The power base of the future will likely be:

expert

The key element behind the factors used to explain power differences between groups based on the strategic contingency model is:

dependence

An important aspect of a manager's exercise of reward power in the determination of employee salary increases is:

distributive justice

If a salesperson significantly discounted the price of a product in order to make a sale that would win a contest, the salesperson would be most likely to breach which of the

utilitarian principle

McClelland has found that the best managers are those who have

a high need for social power and a low need for affiliation

An individual who seems to always have a full calendar and is frequently going to meetings displays _____, according to Korda.

time power

According to Michael Korda's view on power which emphasizes symbols of power, which of the following are the three unusual symbols used to explain power differences between individuals?

office furnishings, time power, and standing by

According to John Kotter, leadership (in contrast to management) entails

setting a direction for the organization

Kotter suggests that leadership and management:

are two distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations

Trait theories of leadership attempt to:

focus on leaders physical attributes, personality, and abilities

Which of the following is NOT one of the leadership theory categorization factors

attitudes

When comparing autocratic leadership style to democratic leadership style, democratic leaders:

do not closely supervise and allow employee initiative and decision making

According to the Michigan studies on leadership, a work environment characterized by constant influence attempts on the part of the leader through closer supervision or written rules and regulations is likely the result of:

employee-centered style

The impoverished manager is one who:

exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired.

The theories of leadership concerned with identifying the specific leader behaviors that are most effective in specific leadership situations would be:

behavioral theories

According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of leaders is dependent on:

the favorableness of their situation

Fiedler recommends that managers, in order to be effective, should

carefully assess and diagnose the situation

a projective technique that evaluates the person a leader has least preferred to work with

The LPC scale

The path-goal theory of leader effectiveness by Robert House is based on:

the expectancy theory of motivation

Which of the following is NOT one of the leader behavior styles one can choose from when using the path- goal theory of leader effectiveness

relationship-oriented

According to the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model, all of the following are possible appropriate decision-making strategies except:

laissez-faire

The key situational variable of the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model is:

maturity level of employees

In the Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership model, maturity is determined by:

a follower's ability and willingness to accept responsibility for completing work

Transformational leaders have been found to:

inspire followers to perform beyond expectations

Conflict involves disagreement between two or more parties because of

incompatible goals

The power not only to control emotions but also to perceive them is termed:

emotional intelligence

According to the discussion of conflict offered in the text, conflict cannot be:

prevented

One occasion in which managers should work to stimulate conflict is when:

the group suffers from group think

two departments in a university are engaged in a conflict because one had its budget cut. This is an example of conflict based on:

common resources

You have a problem with your computer, so you call the company that made it. They inform you that the problem is caused by software, so you call the software division and they tell you it's the hardware. This is an example of:

jurisdictional ambiguities

Two machine operators disagree over the cause of an equipment breakdown. This conflict is based on differences in:

perception

The conflict that occurs between a company and a union during a strike is:

interorganizational

Conflict that occurs between two or more individuals would be considered:

interpersonal conflict

As a supervisor, you are not likely to be able to solve _____ conflict of others.

intrapersonal

One of the positive sides of intrapersonal conflicts is

defining moments

When one's values conflict with his/her job demands, this is _____ conflict.

person-role

A good technique for managing intrarole conflict is:

role analysis

A defense mechanism in which an individual continues dysfunctional behavior that will clearly not solve a conflict is known as:

fixation

An ineffective technique for dealing with conflict where a delaying action is used to buy time is referred to as:

administrative orbiting

When contrasting American and Japanese business cultures, Americans tend to _____, whereas the Japanese prefer _____.

be individualistic; collectivism

In research on styles of conflict management, the _____ style was least effective.

avoiding

When two departments are in conflict but are also facing a common threat, the _____ style of conflict management is most appropriate.

collaborating

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