EIDWS 114 METOC

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How does Naval Oceanography support the Information Dominance Mission

Predicts weather and ocean conditions thereby assisting in the foreseeable intelligence collection, capabilities of the adversary. Serves on panel discussing issues, collaboration, important issues related to corps

Various type of METOC products available through Naval Oceanography Portal(NOP)

USNO - Naval Abservatory
JTWC - Joint Typhoon Warning
NOOC - Oceanography Operations Center
FNMOC - Fleet Numerical Meteorological Oceanography Center
NAVO - Oceanography Office

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)

Highest Satellite, No high resolution

Polar Operational Environmental Satellite

Very High resolution provides sea heights

Defense meteorological Satellite Program

Primary Function: Collect terrestrial, space environment, and Earth surface data

The National Polar - Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS)

5 major sensors on board 100 minute period

Tropical Rainfall measuring Mission (TRMM)

Measures precipitation patterns

Wind direction/speed

Direction wind blowing
True - True north
Relative - depending on direction of own ship

Ambiant Air

Temperature of the surroundings

Wind chill

felt air temperature on exposed skin due to the wind

Heat Stress

Excessive heat on the body

Precipitation

All forms of moisture that falls to the earth's surface

relative humidity

Measure amount of water in the air

Sky condition

appearance of the sky

Atmospheric pressure

pressure of atmosphere at any point measured in mill bars or inches

Air Mass

Body of Air with similar temperature characteristics

Cold/WARM/Occluded Front

Leading edge of warm/cold mass
Cold front overtakes warm front

Restricted visibility

Limited visibility due to mist, fog, rain, snow

Fog

Water Droplets, ice crystals in air near surface

Sunrise/Sunset

Appearance of sun on easter horizon, disappearance on west horizon

Moonrise/Moonset

First appearance/disappearance of moon over horizon

Lunar Illumination

Reflection of moonlight from clouds and terrain

Tropical Depression

Individual storms max 33 knots

Tropical Storm

Storms with speeds of 35-64 knots

Hurricane/typhoon

circular storm 64 knots and develops an eye in the middle

Thunderstorm

Form of weather, lightning, thunder

Tornado/Waterspout

Rotating column of air in contact with the earth

Funnel Cloud

Funnel shaped cloud of condensed water droplets

Effects on military Operations - Visibility

Fog, Haze, and Rain reduces reduces visual ability

Effects on military Operations - precipitation

Snow, rain affects mobility

Effects on military Operations - Winds

Influences aircraft and artillery operations

Effects on military Operations - Cloud Cover

Affects aviation reducing visibility

Effects on military Operations - Temperature and Humidity

Affects personnel, equipment and storage

Ocean Eddies - Cold

Swirling of fluid and reverse current when floating past an obstacle
Counter Clockwise

Ocean Eddies - Warm

Swirling of fluid and reverse current when floating past an obstacle
Clockwise

Bathythermograph

instrument for recording water temperature as compared to depth

Bioluminescence

the production of light by living things

Sea Wave

Body of water in arched form breaking on shore

Wave height

Difference between crest and neighboring trough

Wave period

Size of wave in time

Swell wave

Seas moved out and away from areas where formed

SST

Sea surface temperature

Tides

Alternate rising and falling of sea; twice lunar day

Ebb Tide

Receding outgoing tide

Flood Tide

Incoming Rising Tide

High Tide

When the moon is overhead

Low Tide

Sun and Moon aligned with the earth

Currents

Body of water traveling in definite direction

Open Ocean current

Flows over Geographic region

Littoral current

Strikes Beach, flows parallel with beach

Rip Tide

Flowing seaward from shore

Surf Zone

Ocean waves coming closer to the shore

Spilling Breaker Type

Crest destabilizes spilling over from of wave

Plunging Breaker Type

Wave curls over onto base of wave creating a splash

Surging

No Breakage

Ocean Fronts

Boundaries between water masses of different density

Ocean Bottom Topography

Starts with outer continental shelf to the continental slopes to the ocean floor

Ocean Bottom Composition

Terrigenous - Sediments of eroded material on land
Biogenic - Derived from Biological matter
Volcanogenic - Amounts of ash
Hydrogenous - precipitated from sea water
Cosmogenic - from interstellar space

Ocean Layers
Mixed Layer

Top 2.5 meters, same as temperature of the atmosphere

Ocean Layers
Thermocline

Temperature changes more rapidly than above or below

Ocean Layers
Deep Layer

1000 fathoms. There is little or no light

Effects on transmission of sound
Temperature

Primary controller of sound
speed increases 3.2 m/sec for ever 1 degree increase

Effects on transmission of sound
Pressure

Sound speed increases w/pressure

Effects on transmission of sound
Salinity

Sound speed greatest in fresh water or high salinity

Relationship of METOC to GEOSPATIAL Intelligence

METOC is intelligence layer of GEOINT information base

Impacts of environmental conditions
Anti-submarine warfare operations

variations in temperature, salinity and pressure affect travel and communications

Impacts of environmental conditions
Naval Special Warfare operations

Terrain restrictions, time of day, adverse weather

Impacts of environmental conditions
Mine Warfare operations

surface winds, wave action, visibility, daylight hours

Air defense operations

weapon systems, safety of personnel

Information Warfare operations

Proper collection management of assets

Humanitarian Assistance/ Disaster Relief operations

Employment of forces, communications

Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Warfare

Retrograde contaminated equipment

Strike Warfare

Temperature, Salinity, and Pressure

Impacts of atmospheric conditions on EM propagation of radar beam
Standard refraction

Bent downward due to temperature, moisture and pressure

Impacts of atmospheric conditions on EM propagation of radar beam
Super-refraction

Bent towards surface of the earth

Impacts of atmospheric conditions on EM propagation of radar beam
Sub-refraction

No change; Increase in height

Impacts of atmospheric conditions on EM propagation of radar beam
Trapping

Extends radar ranges

Weather conditions of warning
Small craft

Winds 20-33 kts

Weather conditions of warning
Gale

Winds 34-70 kts

Weather conditions of warning
Storm

Winds 48 kts or higher

Weather conditions of warning
Local wind advisory

North Hemisphere transmitted in AUTODIN
Southern Hemisphere transmitted in local area

Weather conditions of warning
High Seas

Issued every 12 hours for wave heights of 12 ft.

Weather conditions of warning
Severe thunderstorms/tornado

wind gusts 50 its or more/ detected by radar or sighted

Weather conditions of warning
Thunderstorm

Forecast to hit area

Weather conditions of warning
Hurricane/Typhoon

Winds 64 kts or more

Weather conditions of warning
Extreme Temperature

Heat Index/Wind Chill reflected

Weather conditions of warning
Heavy Snow

Snow Mixed freezing precipitation

Weather conditions of warning
Flash Flood

Heavy Rainfall may produce flash flood

Weather conditions of warning
Hazardous Surf

Abnormally high tides to affect operations

Weather conditions of warning
Earthquake/Tsunami

Earthquakes can cause Tsunamis

COR 5

Stormwatch; not anticipated

COR 4

Possible threat within 72 hours

COR 3

Possible within 48 hours

COR 2

Anticipated within 24 hours

COR 1

Occurring or within 12 hours

Nautical Almanac

Convenient form of astronomical data for celestial navigation

Astronomical Almanac

Precise prediction of Astronomical phenomena

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