disease list

Created by ljcrew0617 

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anthrax

agent: bacillus anthracis (bacteria)
trans: airborn spores, biological warfare, animal products
S & S: malignant pustule at site penetration through skin: pulmonary anthrax cough, myalagia, respiratory distress, cyanosis, intestinal nathrax dirarrhea with bloody stools, prostration, shock, death
treatment: aggressive therapy with penicillin: tetracycline
immunization: vaccine for animal; none for humans

botulism

agent: clostridium botulinum (bacteria)
trans: contaminated food
s & s: facial paralysis, blurred vision, slurred speech numbing in extremities, vomiting, difficult breathing, respiratory paralysis, possible death
treatment: aggressive antitoxin therapy,

cholera

Vibrio cholerae (bacteria)
transmission: fecally-contaminatied food and drink
choleratreatment: fluid and electrolyte replacement, tetracyline
Immunization: Dead V. cholerae in vaccine for limited immunity.

food poisoning

agent: Staphylococci aureus (bacteria)
transmission: contaminiated food
s & s: brief but intense diarrhea, nausea , abdominal pain
treatment: symptomatic

diptheria

Agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriae (bacteria)
transmission: airborne droplets
S & S: respiratory obstruction leads to suffocation: swollen, bull neck, temporary facial paralysis, heart, muscle kidney liver and other orang irregularities
treatment: aggressive therapy with diphtheria antitoxin and peicillin or erythromycin.
immunization: diphtheria (D) toxoid in DPT vaccine

typhus

agent: Rickettsia typhi (bacteria)
transmission: rat flea
S& S: maculopapular rash first on body trunk, then extremities, fever for about 2 weeks, symptoms milder than in epidemic typhus
treatment: tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin

gas gengrene

agent: Clostridial perfringens (bacteria)
transmission: contaminated soil, broken skin
s & s: swollen gangreenous tissue, rapidly spreading cellular necrosis anemia, severe toxemia, and shock, possible death
treatement: vigorious dibidement of tissue, aggressive peicillin therapy, antiotoxin therapy possible, hyperbaric oxygen

gonorrhea

agent: Neisseria gonorrhoaea (bacteria)
transmission: sexual contact
s & s: pain on urination, yellow, creamy discharg (espicially in males), females often asymptomatic, infertility possible due to blockage, conjunctivitis and possible blindness if contacted during birth (gonococcal ophthalmia)
treatment: penicilin (resistant strains called penicillinase-producing NG, or PPNG, tetracycline or ceftriaxone alternatives

leprosy

agent; Mycobacterium leprae (bacteria)
transmission: contact; respiratory secretions
s & s: for tuberculoid leprosy: macular lesions with raised erythematous edges on trunk, face and limbs; localized nerve destruction lead to anaesthesia and injury to skin tissues
treatment: extended treatment with dapsone; clofazimine; rifampin.

pneumonia

agent; Mycoplasma pneumonia (bacteria)
transmission: repiratory droplets
s & s: dry, hacking cough, and influenzalike symptoms, fever, fatigue and respiratory congestion
treatment: erythromycin, tertacycline, absence of cell wall negates penicilin use.
Prevention: pneumococcal vaccine

pertussis (whooping cough)

agent: Bordetella pertussis (bacteria)
transmission: airborne droplets
symptoms: mild coughing and sneezing,, explosive cough and whoop on rapid inspiration, possible cyanosis and convultions
treatment; erythromycin and other antimicrobials
immunization: acellular pertussis vaccine in DTaP trivalent vaccine; older vaccine DTP cantained crude, whole-cell preparation

Bubonic plague

agent: Yersinia pestis (Bacteria)
transmission: rat flea or airborne droplets
symptoms: enlarged, tender lymph nodes especially in neck, armpits, and groin; intense fever, with ssepticemia; terminal pneumonia; menigintitis; heart failure

tetanus

Agent: Clostridium tetani (bacteria)
transmission: enters through cut/wounds with soil containated objects
symptoms; spontaneous muscle contractions and uncontrolled muscle spasms throughout body; fists clench; back arches; fixed smile on face; jaw muscles lock; spastic respiratory movements, stiff neck, difficult swallowing
treatment: antibiotics; penicillin therapy for bacteria

trachoma

agent: Chlamydia trachomatis (bacteria)
transmission: skin contact; contaminated object, Flies
symptoms; tiny,pale nodules on surface of conjunctiva giving it a rough apperance; possible scarring and blindness
treatment; Antibiotics

tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (bacteria)
transmission; respiratory droplets
symptoms: cough, influenzalike symptoms, chest pain rust colored sputum, spread to bones, liver, kidney, mennges; severe respiratory distress, cyanosis, night sweats
treatment: antibiotics, par-amino salicyclic acid, extended thearapy
immunization: bcg vaccine

Typhoid fever

agent: Salmonella typhi (bacteria)
transmission: fecal oral route
symptoms: abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, ulceration and perforation of intestinal wall can occur
treatment: chloramphenicl trimethorprim sulfamethoxazole
immunization: dead S.thypi in vaccine for low level immuity

chicken pox

agent: Varicella-Zoster Virus
Transmission: respiratory droplets; formites; contact
symptoms; fever malaise, teardrop-shaped fluid shaped filled skin vesicles, vesicles itch intensely and yield virus-ladenfluid; curst and fall off with a scar
treatment: symptomatic ; acyclovir available to relieve symptoms, Vaccines

Hepatitis B

Hepatis B virus (HBV) ; family Hepadnaviridae
transmission: blood and body fluids contact
symptoms; anorexia malaise, abdominal discomfort; jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools, chronic liver diseae possilble progression to liver cancer
immunization: vaccie of viral proteins

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A Virus (HAV); family Picornaviridae
transmission: fecal oral route;
symptoms; anorexia, malaise, abdominal discomfort, jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools
immunization; temporary passive immunity with hepatities A immune globulin; no vaccine availiable for long-term immunity

herpex simplex

agent; Herpes Simplex Virus1 and 2 (also known as the Human Herpes virus1 and 2); family Herpesviridae
transmission; skin contact sexual contact
symptoms; vesicular lesions of tongue, buccal surface, gums and pharynx in young children; vesicular or ulcerative lesions of oral srufaces, corneal and conjunctival infection with lesions, multiple, coalseced, thin walled blisters with pain and urethral discharge, cerebral edemaa and brain infection;

Infectious monoculeosis

Agent: epstein-Barr virus:
transmission; respiratory droplets, saliva contact formites
symptoms; enlarged lymph nodes, mild fever, sore throat, swollen spleen and heart defects can occur;

small pox

Variola Virus: Poxviridae
transmission; skin contact; respiratory droplets, formites
symptoms: abrupt fever, chills, rash progressing from pink spots to pink pimples to pustules to vesicles, rash apperas simultaneously over body surface; pock-marked skin; fatal disease

measles

aka. Rubeola agent; Measles Virus ; Paramyxoviridae
transmission; (aerosol) repiratory droplets, lesion exudates
symptoms; common cold like, rash on hair line and chest, lesion of oral cavity
immunization; attenuated measles virus in MMR vaccine

influenza

agent; Othromyxoviridae
transmission: respiratory droplets; hand to hand contact
symptoms: abrupt temperatur rise, sore throat, myalagia, muscular aches, anorexia, possible pneumonia, secondary bacterial infection possible and serious
treatment: antiviral drugs
immunizations: several inactivated strains; recommended for high-risk individuals.

mumps

agent; Paramyxoviridae
transmission: respiratory droplets
symptoms; edema and pain in salivary glands; taut skin over glands many asymptomatic infections; possible complications in male reproduction organs leading to some tissue atrophy
immunization; attenuated mumps virus in MMR vaccine

Polio

Poliovirus: Picornaviridae (virus)
transmission: fecal oral route.
symptoms; gastrointestinal distress, fever, malais, possible flaccid, then paralytic paralysis with spinal involvement or medulla involvemnet
immunization; sal vaccen containg formalin-treated inactivated viruses.

rabies

agent: rhabdoviridae (virus)
transmission; saliva transmission during bite of rabid animal
symptoms; abnormal sensations at bit location, fever irritability, aggressive behavior, muscle tension especially in swallowing muscles, intense reaction to slight sound
immunization: inactivated viruses cultivatedi human dipid fibroblast culture; preexposure immunzation to hish risk indiviual postexposure immunization to individulas bitten by animal

blastomycosis

Agent: Blastomyces dermitidis (fungus)
transmission; airborne spored from soil; associated with decaying wood
symptoms: respiratory distress, with flulike symptoms; infection of the liver, spleen skin and bone accompanied by granulomatous lesions
treatment: amphotericin B ketoconazole

cryptococcosis

Cryptococcus neoformans, C. grubii, C.gattii (Fungus)
transmission: airborne from pigeon droppings; respiratory normal flora
symptoms; respiratory distress, with primary lesions; meningitis, with intense frontal heasdache, rigidities, seizures; possible bone, spleen, other organ involvement
treatment; amphortercin b ; 5 fluorocytosine

amoebiasis

agent: Entamoeba histolytica (protozoa)
transmission: fecal oral route
symptoms: appendicitislike pain; blood in stools, some diarrhea
treatment; symptomatic to replace fluids and electrolytes; metronidazole iodoquinol.

giardiasis

agent: Giardia lamblia, G. infestinalis
transmission:wild animals, contaminated food and water
symptoms; mild to extensive diarrhea lasting for up to two weeks;
treatment: symptomatic

Malaria

Protozoan of 4 different types (1) Plasmodium falciparum(2)Plasmodium vivax(3)Plasmodium ovale
(4)Plasmodium malaria
transmission; mosquitoes
symptoms; severe chills, then high fever; severe anemia; blackened urine; renal and liver failure; brain damage,
treatment; quinine, chloroquine, primaquine, mefloquine

toxoplasmosis

toxoplasma gondii (protozoa)
transmission: contact with urine or skin or domestic cat; fecal oral route
symptome; swollen lymph nodes fever, rash; in fetus eye lesions, retina infection, encephalitis, possible abortion; in AIDS patients; encephalitis and seizures, possible cardial infection and pneumonia
treatment: Pyramethamine; sulfonaminde drugs

African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)

Agent: Trypanosoma brucei (protozoa)
transmission: tsetse fly
symptoms: painless shallow ulcer at the site of the tsetse fly bite; fever, headace, skin rash, mental distress, brain damage from demylination coma
treatment: suramin and pentadione

lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi (bacteria)
transmission; ticks
symptoms: expanding , reddened bulle eye skin lesion, fever neck stiffness; some weeks later joint pain, arthiritis at knees possible involvement of central nervous system and cardiac complications
treatment; aggressive therapy with tertacycline; alternativives penicillin, vancomycin, cephalosporins

Pharyngitis

Streptococcus pyogenes (bacteria)
transmission: respirtory droplets
symptoms: strep throat, high fever swollen lymph nodes swollen tonsils with pus, fiery red apperance pharyngeal tissues, scarlet fever streptococci in blood produce erythrogenic toxin that damages blood vessels and induces blood leakage to skin
treatment; aggressive antibiotic therapy with penicillin erythromycin

Typhus

Agent: Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii (parasites)
Transmission:Ticks, Lice and flea bites
S&S:chills, fever, aches in joints, delirium, death
Treatment: antibiotics

Roseola

agent: Herpesviridae (virus)
Transmissiion: fecal oral route, airborne droplets
S&S: high fever and rash
Treatment: none

ascariasis

agent: Ascaris lumbricoides (parasite) roundworm
transmission: ingesting, oral fecal route
s&s: abdominal discomfort, cough
prevention; hand washing, food sanitation

bacteral menigitis

Agent: Neisseria meniginitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia (bacteria)
transmission: respiratory, kissing, coughing
s&s: nausea, vomitig photophobia, altered mental status, stiff neck, convulsions, coma, hearing loss, joint damage, death
tratment: antibiotic treantment cetriaxone, vancomycin
prevention: vaccine Hib

elephantiasis

agent: Wuchereria bancrofti (parasite)
trans: mosquito bite
s&s: swelling of the legs and other extremities
Prevention: sleep uner mosquito net, wear long sleeves, and trousers mosquito repellant
treatment: diethylcarbamazine (DEC)

German Measles

Agent:Togaviridae (virus)
transmission respiratory droplets airborn
s&s: rash and fever for 2-3 days
Prevention: vaccine MMR
treatment: none...just for symptoms

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)

Agent: Bunyaviridae (virus)
trans: airborn, urin or feces of rodents
s&s: ftaigue, fever muscle, aches thighs, hips and back, dizziness, chills, nausea vomitting diarrhea, pneumonia
treatment: no specific treament
prevention: minimize exposure of mice, rodents in home

Rheumatic Fever

agent: group A streptococcus (bactreia)
transmission; respiatory
s&s: fever, painful and tender joints, red hot, or swollen small painless nodules beneath the skin
chest pain, fatigue, SOB
treatment: penicillian
Prevention: threat for strepthroat

schistosomiasis

agent: Schistosoma mansoni (parasitic worm)
Transmission: fresh water, penetrated skin
Prevention; water and sewage treatment, sanitation
s&s: anemia, malnutrition, learning difficulties
treatment: parziquantel

ehrlichiosos

Agent: Ehrilichia chaffensis (bacteria)
transmission: bite of an infected tick
Symptoms: flulike
Preventiton: wear light colored clothing, protective clothing, insect repellant, remove ticks promptly
treatment: doxycycline
tetracyclines

warts

Agent: Human Papilloma (virus)
Transmission: skin contact
s&s: lesions, light to dar , cauliflower like shape
prevention: use footwear in public showers and other public areas to avoid plantar warts- use condoms for intercourse
treatment: cryotherapy, cantharidin, electrodessication
salicylic acid,

west nile virus

Agent: West Nile virus (Flavivirus family)
prevention: protection from mosquito bites
s&s: high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, convulsions, muscle wearkness, vision loss, numbness, and paralysis
transmission: infected mosquitos when they feed on infected birds; transfusions, transplants, mother to child

syphilis

Agent: Treponema pallidium (bacteria)
Transmission: person to person through direct contact with syphilis sore, STD
treatment: single intramucular injection of penicillian
s&s: symptoms are latant, primary stage, chancre sor; secondary stage, skin rash rough red chancre
prevention: abstain from sexual contact or to be ina long-term mutually monogomous relationship.

Peptic ulcer

Agent: Helicobacter pylori (bacteria)
Transmission: person to person
Treatment: antibiotics
S&S: Abs pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting blood, perforation of intestine

Anaphylaxis

Agent: Allergen
Transmission: food, respiratory, insect bites, drug
S&S: shock, breathing difficulty, allergic conditions, hay fever
Prevention: avoid sensitizing, agent desensitization

Anaphylaxis

S&S: shock, breathing difficulty, allergic conditions, hay fever

Peptic ulcer

S&S: Abs pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting blood, perforation of intestine

Syphilis

s&s: symptoms are latant, primary stage, chancre sor; secondary stage, skin rash rough red chancre
prevention: abstain from sexual contact or to be ina long-term mutually monogomous relationship.

West Nile Virus

s&s: high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, convulsions, muscle wearkness, vision loss, numbness, and paralysis

warts

gent: papillomavirus s&s: lesions, light to dar , cauliflower like shape
prevention: use footwear in public showers and other public areas to avoid plantar warts- use condoms for intercourse

ehrlichiosos

Symptoms: flulike

schistosomiasis

s&s: anemia, malnutrition, learning difficulties

Rheumatic Fever

s&s: fever, painful and tender joints, red hot, or swollen small painless nodules beneath the skin
chest pain, fatigue, SOB

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)

s&s: ftaigue, fever muscle, aches thighs, hips and back, dizziness, chills, nausea vomitting diarrhea, pneumonia

German Measles

s&s: rash and fever for 2-3 days

elephantiasis

s&s: swelling of the legs and other extremities

bacteral menigitis

s&s: nausea, vomitig photophobia, altered mental status, stiff neck, convulsions, coma, hearing loss, joint damage, death

ascariasis

s&s: abdominal discomfort, cough

Roseola

S&S: high fever and rash

Typhus

S&S:chills, fever, aches in joints, delirium, death

Pharyngitis

symptoms: strep throat, high fever swollen lymph nodes swollen tonsils with pus, fiery red apperance pharyngeal tissues, scarlet fever streptococci in blood produce erythrogenic toxin that damages blood vessels and induces blood leakage to skin

lyme disease

symptoms: expanding , reddened bulle eye skin lesion, fever neck stiffness; some weeks later joint pain, arthiritis at knees possible involvement of central nervous system and cardiac complications

African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)

symptoms: painless shallow ulcer at the site of the tsetse fly bite; fever, headace, skin rash, mental distress, brain damage from demylination coma

toxoplasmosis

symptome; swollen lymph nodes fever, rash; in fetus eye lesions, retina infection, encephalitis, possible abortion; in AIDS patients; encephalitis and seizures, possible cardial infection and pneumonia

anthrax

S & S: malignant pustule at site penetration through skin: pulmonary anthrax cough, myalagia, respiratory distress, cyanosis, intestinal nathrax dirarrhea with bloody stools, prostration, shock, death

botulism

s & s: facial paralysis, blurred vision, slurred speech numbing in extremities, vomiting, difficult breathing, respiratory paralysis, possible death

Malaria

symptoms; severe chills, then high fever; severe anemia; blackened urine; renal and liver failure; brain damage

giardiasis

symptoms; mild to extensive diarrhea lasting for up to two weeks;

amoebiasis

symptoms: appendicitislike pain; blood in stools, some diarrhea

cryptococcosis

symptoms; respiratory distress, with primary lesions; meningitis, with intense frontal heasdache, rigidities, seizures; possible bone, spleen, other organ involvement

blastomycosis

symptoms: respiratory distress, with flulike symptoms; infection of the liver, spleen skin and bone accompanied by granulomatous lesions

rabies

symptoms; abnormal sensations at bit location, fever irritability, aggressive behavior, muscle tension especially in swallowing muscles, intense reaction to slight sound

Polio

symptoms; gastrointestinal distress, fever, malais, possible flaccid, then paralytic paralysis with spinal

mumps

symptoms; edema and pain in salivary glands; taut skin over glands many asymptomatic infections; possible complications in male reproduction organs leading to some tissue atrophy

influenza

symptoms: abrupt temperatur rise, sore throat, myalagia, muscular aches, anorexia, possible pneumonia, secondary bacterial infection possible and serious

measles

symptoms; common cold like, rash on hair line and chest, lesion of oral cavity

small pox

symptoms: abrupt fever, chills, rash progressing from pink spots to pink pimples to pustules to vesicles, rash apperas simultaneously over body surface; pock-marked skin; fatal disease

Infectious monoculeosis

symptoms; enlarged lymph nodes, mild fever, sore throat, swollen spleen and heart defects can occur;

herpex simplex

symptoms; vesicular lesions of tongue, buccal surface, gums and pharynx in young children; vesicular or ulcerative lesions of oral srufaces, corneal and conjunctival infection with lesions, multiple, coalseced, thin walled blisters with pain and urethral discharge, cerebral edemaa and brain infection

chicken pox

symptoms; fever malaise, teardrop-shaped fluid shaped filled skin vesicles, vesicles itch intensely and yield virus-ladenfluid; curst and fall off with a scar

Typhoid fever

symptoms: abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, ulceration and perforation of intestinal wall can occur

tuberculosis

symptoms: cough, influenzalike symptoms, chest pain rust colored sputum, spread to bones, liver, kidney, mennges; severe respiratory distress, cyanosis, night sweats

trachoma

symptoms; tiny,pale nodules on surface of conjunctiva giving it a rough apperance; possible scarring and blindness

tetanus

symptoms; spontaneous muscle contractions and uncontrolled muscle spasms throughout body; fists clench; back arches; fixed smile on face; jaw muscles lock; spastic respiratory movements, stiff neck, difficult swallowing

Bubonic plague

symptoms: enlarged, tender lymph nodes especially in neck, armpits, and groin; intense fever, with ssepticemia; terminal pneumonia; menigintitis; heart failure

pertussis (whooping cough)

symptoms: mild coughing and sneezing,, explosive cough and whoop on rapid inspiration, possible cyanosis and convultions

pneumonia

s & s: dry, hacking cough, and influenzalike symptoms, fever, fatigue and respiratory congestion

leprosy

s & s: for tuberculoid leprosy: macular lesions with raised erythematous edges on trunk, face and limbs; localized nerve destruction lead to anaesthesia and injury to skin tissues

gonorrhea

s & s: pain on urination, yellow, creamy discharg (espicially in males), females often asymptomatic, infertility possible due to blockage, conjunctivitis and possible blindness if contacted during birth (gonococcal ophthalmia)

typhus

S& S: maculopapular rash first on body trunk, then extremities, fever for about 2 weeks,

food poisoning

s & s: brief but intense diarrhea, nausea , abdominal pain

diptheria

S & S: respiratory obstruction leads to suffocation: swollen, bull neck, temporary facial paralysis, heart, muscle kidney liver and other orang irregularities

Hepatitis B

symptoms; anorexia malaise, abdominal discomfort; jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools, chronic liver diseae possilble progression to liver cancer

Hepatitis A

symptoms; anorexia, malaise, abdominal discomfort, jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools

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