American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
A prominent statesman, he became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, he took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, he organized the national government by his Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
chisholm v. georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia., 1793- Supreme Court ruled that a state could be sued in federal courts by nonresidents
hylton v. the united states
was an early United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that a tax on carriages did not violate the Article I, Section 9 requirement for the apportioning of direct taxes. It found the carriage tax was an "excise" instead of a "direct tax" requiring apportionment among the states by population. The Court noted that a tax on land was an example of a direct tax contemplated by the Constitution.
It is also significant for being the first case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court challenging the constitutionality of an act of Congress; In choosing to uphold the tax, the Court exercised judicial review, although they refrained from overturning the statute.
ware v. hylton
court case that declared that the federal government can strike down state laws, United States Supreme Court case where a divided court ruled that an article in the Treaty of Paris, which provided that debtors on both sides should meet no lawful impediment when recovering bona fide debts, took precedence and overruled a Virginia law passed during the American Revolution which had nullified such debts.
judiciary act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures., legislation passed by congress that created the federal court system
report on public credit
This was the first of three major reports on economic policy issued by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress. The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States. Hamilton proposed a remarkable set of policies for handling the debt problem. All debts were to be paid at face value. The Federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states, and it would be financed with new U.S. government bonds paying about 4% interest.
The U.S.'s national debt included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton's program paid off these debts.
report on manufactures
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.
report on a national bank
The third of Hamilton's reports to the House of Representatives, recommended a national bank and a national mint (created in 1792); Felt national bank would solve problems of national debt and uniform currency
citizen edmond genet
French government representative asking for assistance for the French Revolution. Sparked support for the French Revolution and led to the creation of the Democratic-Republican party, A French diplomat (ambassador) and he was sent over to the U.S. to try to get Washington to change his mind about Neutrality and get him to help only the French; tried to organize military expeditions against Spain in Florida at this time
battle of fallen timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River; A battle between U.S. forces lead by Gen. Anthony Wayne and Shawnee at a location, south of present day Toledo, Ohio. Wayne routed the Native Americans in a matter of hours. The victory speeded the end of native resistance in the northwest frontier and it underlined the power of the new Federal government. It also permanently ended the power of the British on American soil, when British forces at a nearby fort refused sanctuary to the defeated Shawnee, fearing war with the United States.
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. The army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans., granted us right to navigate the mississippi and deposite goods at new orleans
Thomas Jefferson supporter, Democrat-Republican newspaper; Philip Freneau was editor
the farewell address
GW's last speech: reflects 3 threats to union: 1. foreign entanglements 2. regionalism 3. pol. parties
Immunity of states from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders. Lays the foundation for sovereign immunity., Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand; French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
- Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France; The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris , Term widely used to describe French and American naval conflicts between 1798 to 1800. Neither nation declared war, although they carried out naval operations against each other
alien and sedition acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
Split of Federalist party particularly over whether to enter war with France, Hamilton and his supporters became these
kentucky and virginia resolves
Political declarations in favor of states rights, written by Jefferson and Madison, in opposition to the federal Alien & Sedition Acts. These resolutions, passed by the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures in 1798, maintained that states could nullify federal legislation they regarded as unconstitutional.
A Seneca Iroquois prophet. Preached against alcoholism by appealing to religious traditions. Had Quaker missionaries teach agricultural methods to the Iroquois men.
fugitive slave law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
in 1800, he gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside of Richmond; but 2 Africans gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin, along with 35 others he was executed.
This man invented the cotton gin which allowed for the faster picking of cotton in the Americas
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas.
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
revolution of 1800
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
judiciary act of 1801
One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
marbury v. madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789)., established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate., supreme court justice impeached but not convicted
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Constitution is broadly interpreted, recognizing that it could not possibly anticipate all future developments; relies on the idea of implied powers and the "necessary and proper" clause. Both views on how to interpret the Constitution came up during the debate on chartering the Bank of the United States in 1791.
lewis and clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace, war chief of the Miamis who claimed that Ohio River was the boundary between Indian and US territory
mad anthony wayne
The leader of the army that crushed the Indians of the Northwest Territory in 1794., American general during the American Revolution (1745-1796)
the chesapeake affair
Chesapeake denied having deserters in the crew and refused the British ship 'Leopard' to a search. They opened fire, took four men, killed three, and wounded 18, Involved a British ship bombarding and American naval vessel off the coast of Virginia
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Jefferson's not trading with, fighting with or associating with other countries , policies to end maritime conflicts (unsuccessful): non-intercourse act, macon's bill2
macon's bill #2
Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. He was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
the Prophet; inspired a religious revival that spread through many tribes and united them; killed by Harrison at battle of Tippecanoe
william henry harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
battle of tippecanoe
Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.
battle of lake erie
Battle where a Naval force led by Oliver Hazard Perry defeated the British and secured Lake Erie
The seventh President of the United States who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
treaty of ghent
Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
battle of new orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
the federal government is more powerful than state governments, Federal > States; unfunded mandates makes states dependent on federal money
era of good feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
the american system
The three-part plan developed by Henry Clay that stressed a strong banking system, protective tariffs, and a network of roads and canals. Clay's plan was essential in developing a profitable home market. This home market enabled America to become a self-sufficient, isolated country,
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
gibbons v. ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
dartmouth v. woodward
1819--New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
mcculloch v. md
states can't tax national banks; congress can charter a bank, The 1819 case in which Justice Marshall emphasized the constitutional supremacy of the federal government in striking down MDs attempt to tax the bank of the United States
fletcher v. peck
Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution, arose with a GA legistlatire was swayed by bribary granted 35 million acres in the yazoo river country to private speculators, legislature cancelled it, said constitution forbid state laws imparing contracts
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank., Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
treaty of 1818
Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, and gave both countries a joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years.
florida purchase treaty (adams-onis treaty)
Spain ceded Florida, as well as shadowy Spanish claims to Oregon, in exchange for America's abandonment of equally murky claims to Texas, soon to become part of the independent Mexico. The hitherto vague western boundary of Louisiana was made to run zigzag along the Rockies to the 42nd parallel and then to turn due west to the Pacific, dividing Oregon from Spanish holdings., Spain ceded Florida to US, 2. And claims to Oregon, 3. US abandon claims on Texas, 4. The western boundary of Louisiana was the ridge of Rocky Mountains. John Quincy Adams gains international respect