make a declaration of faith, pray five times daily, give to charity, fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Muslim name for the one and only God
money or goods given to the poor
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Dar al Islam
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam
Place where Muslims go for a pilgrimage
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
the holy book of Islam
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
A Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means
military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
the first ruling dynasty over the Muslim caliphate
Muslim religious community
drafting of civilians to serve in the army
짐을 끄는 동물
Agricultural reform favoring the peasants under the Tang dynasty in China, inheritance system where 1/5 of the land when to the peasant's descendants and the rest went to the government.
practice in chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
Mix of japanese ways and chinese influence; Japanese emperors held power but the Fujiwara family really controlled all political dealings through the emperors. During this time in Japan their learned chinese/wrote chinese/ read chinese etc..
a former Chinese custom of touching the ground with the forehead as a sign of respect or submission
ast division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Nara: agricultural in nature, centered around villages. Most of the villagers followed the Shinto religion, based around the worship of natural and ancestral spirits.
Wierd mix of Daoism and Buddhism and Confucianism
a thin, beautiful pottery invented in China
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
the native religion and former ethnic cult of Japan
the head of the military government of Japan in the era of the samurai
(960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; *landscape black and white paintings
The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
considered the golden age of Chinese civilization and ruled for nearly 300 years; China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia, as well as large parts of Central Asia
a farming system that is in the form of steps going up a mountain
Unequal system between China and surrounding counties; peoples of the neighboring lands would recognize Chinese emperors as their overlords. Envoys from subordinate states would regularly present gifts to Chinese court and perform the knowtow ritual as tokens of their subordination. In return they recieved confirmation of their authority as well as lavish gifts from the Chinese court. The system facilitate trade the cultural exchange between China and other countries.
A group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia.
An empress who held the real power while weak emperors sat on the throne and in 690 declared herself first woman emperor. She conquered Korea
nomadic invaders from central Asia; invaded India; disrupted Gupta administration
(r. 606-648) temporarily restored unified rule in most of northern India.
Indian port cities that were involved in maritime trade in the Indian Ocean Basin
Axum was a trading center and a powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia.
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
system in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters.
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Divisions of land
States in western europe that were not byzantine...struggled to unite or remain strong
the family that ruled the Franks in Gaul from 751 to 987 in the Carolingian Dynasty. This began when Pepin was declared king. They lost power after the Treaty of Verdun.
King of the Franks from 768 to 814, and emperor of Rome from 800 to 814
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the eighth through the tenth century.
a gold coin of the Byzantine Empire
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
The Christian religion of the Byzantine Empire in the middle east that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire. The Christian church ruled by the Byzantine emperor and the patriarchs of various historically significant Christian centers/cities.
division of a group into opposing factions
Pope Gregory I
590-604 was most important figure for providing Roman church with sense of direction; "Gregory the Great"; mobilized local resources and organized defense of Rome