The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
The connection between a particular organism and a specific disease was first made by
The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent harm are called
The microorganisms that are occasionally found in or on the body are called
Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
THEY PROVIDE A SURFACE THAT IS INCOMPATIBLE FOR ATTACHMENT OF AN INVADER, THEY ESTABLISH COMPETITION FOR NUTRIENTS AND VITAMINS, THEY PRODUCE ANTIMICROBIAL SUBSTANCES, AND THEY STIMULATE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
Staphylococcus epidermidis AND Propionibacterium species.
Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
take advantage of special circumstances.
A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
An obligate intracellular pathogen may
may only survive and grow inside a cell.
Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
Avirulent organisms are
UNABLE TO CAUSE DISEASE
Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
ADHESINS, CAPSULES, ENDOTOXINS AND PROTEASES
Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
fever of 39 °C
People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number
A more modern equivalent to Koch's Postulates is termed
Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
Fomites are involved in
The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
The portal of entry
plays a role in whether an infection will be established, may be the skin or respiratory tract AND may be the same as the portal of exit.
The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
ATTACH THE HOST CELLS
Which of the following factors is not considered important for the establishment of an infection?
ARE FOUND ON PILI, HELP BACTERIA ATTACH TO HOST CELLS AND ARE PROTEINS
The process by which infectious agents are ingested by host cells is termed
Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
is a virulence factor.
The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
Lipid A is the toxic portion of the molecule.
The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
lack of receptors that are recognized by adherence factors.
Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
preventing fusion of the lysosome with the phagosome AND preventing acidification of the phagolysosome.
Which is true about superantigens?
They are a type of exotoxin AND They bind to MHC class II antigen on T cells.
Which is/are true of viruses?
They may suppress the production of MHC Class I protein, They may produce an MHC Class I mimic protein AND They may prevent cell suicide.
An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
changing the pilus type.
Which is true about botox?
It may cause botulism AND It is useful in treating conditions related to muscle contractions.
In Gram-negative bacteria many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
located close together on chromosomes in regions called pathogenicity islands.
Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
mimicking host materials.
The most successful parasites are the ones that live in harmony with their hosts.
A human fetus has no resident microbial population.
Infection always leads to disease.
A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
Obligate intracellular parasites may be grown in special synthetic media.
During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
What reason could there be for some people to doubt that HIV is the causative agent of AIDS?
Koch's postulates have been used to make a connection between particular organisms and specific diseases. However, there are limitations to the use of the postulates. Koch's postulate #3 requires innoculating the host with the potential pathogen. Obviously, this is not possible for diseases only found in humans. This barrier may sometimes be circumvented if there is a good animal model. There is no real good animal model for AIDS. With no good animal model, it is not possible to make the direct connection between organism and disease, and one has to rely on indirect connections.