Leadership

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enthusiastic

ɪnˌθuːziˈæstɪk adj
feeling or showing a lot of interest and excitement about something. Say mê, hăng hái
enthusiastic about (doing) sth
Ex: All the staff are enthusiastic about the project

determined

strongly motivated to succeed , kiên quyết
a determined mind - dau oc qua quyet

Moral leadership

distinguishing right from wrong and doing right; seeking the just, honest, and good in the practice of leadership

Preconventional level

follows rules to avoid punishment. Acts in own interest. Blind obedience to authority for its own sake.

Conventional level

lives up to expectations of others. Fulfills duties and obligations of social system. Upholds laws.

Postconventional level

follows internalized universal principles of justice and right. Balances concern for self with concern for others and the common good. Acts in an independent and ethical manner regardless of expectations of others.

Stewardship

a belief that leaders are deeply accountable to others as well as to the organization, wto trying to control others, define meaning and purpose for others or take care of others

Servant leadership

leadership in which the leader transcends self-interest to serve the needs of others, help others grow, and provide opportunities for others to gain materially and emotionally.

Courage

the ability to step forward through fear

Abilene Paradox

the tendency of people to resist voicing their true thoughts or feelings in order to please others and avoid conflict

Whistle-blowing

employee disclosure of illegal, immoral, or unethical practices in the organization

Communication

a process by which information and understanding are transferred btw a sender and receiver

Communication champion

a person who is philosophically grounded in the belief that communication is essential to building trust and gaining commitment to a vision

Strategic conversation

communication that takes place across boundaries and hierarchical levels about the group or organization's vision, critical strategic themes, and values that can help achieve desired outcomes

Open communication

leaders sharing all types of information throughout the company and across all levels

Discernment

listening in which a leader detects unarticulated messages hidden below the surface of spoken interaction. Sự sáng suốt

Dialogue

active sharing and listening in which people explore common ground and grow to understand each other and share a world view

Johari Window

a framework for enhancing communication effectiveness based on interpersonal understanding by oneself and others

Channel

a medium by which a communication message is carried from sender to receiver

Channel richness

the amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode

Nonverbal communication

messages transmitted through action and behavior

Team

a unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a shared goal or purpose

Free rider

a team member who attains benefits from team membership but does not actively participate in and contribute to the team's work

Forming

stage of team development that includes orientation and getting acquainted

Storming

stage of team development in which individual personalities and conflicts emerges

Norming

stage of team development in which conflicts have been resolved and team unity emerges

Performing

stage of team development in which the major emphasis is on accomplishing the team's goals

Adjourning

stage of team dev that occurs in committees and teams have a limited task to perform; the emphasis is on wrapping up, gearing down, and signifying closure

Functional team

team made up of a supervisor and subordinates in the formal chain of command

Cross-functional team

team made up of members from different functional departments within an organization

Self-directed teams

teams made up of members who work with minimum supervision and rotate jobs to produce a complete product or service

Interdependence

the extent to which team members depend on each other for information, resources, or ideas to accomplish their tasks

Team cohesiveness

the extent to which members stick together and remain united in the pursuit of a common goal

Groupthink

the tendency of people in cohesive groups to suppress contrary opinions

Team norm

a belief about appropriate conduct that is shared by team members and guides their behavior

Virtual team

a team made up of geographically or organizationally dispersed members who share a common purpose and are linked primarily through advanced information technologies

Global teams

teams made up of culturally diverse members who live and work in different countries and coordinate some part of their activities on a global basis

Conflict

antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another

Integrative negotiation

a coorperative approach to negotiation in which conflicting parties attempt to reach a win-win solution

Distributive negotiation

adversarial negotiation in which conflicting parties compete to win the most resources and give up as little as possible

Critical thinking

thinking independently and being mindful of the effects of one's own and other people's behavior on achieving the organization's vision

Uncritical thinking

failing to consider possibilities beyond what one is told; accepting the leader's ideas without thinking

Alienated follower

a person in the organization who is a passive, yet independent, critical thinker

Conformist

a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not utilize critical thinking skills in his or her task behavior

Pragmatic survivor

a follower who has qualities of all four extremes (alienated, effective, passive, conformist), depending on which style fits with the prevalent situation

Passive follower

a person in an organization who exhibits neither critical, independent thinking nor active participation

Effective follower

a critical, independent thinker who actively participates in the organization

Feedback

using evaluation and communication to help individuals and the organization learn and improve

Leadership coaching

a method of directing or facilitating a follower with the aim of improving specific skills or achieving a specific development goal

Directive coaching

helping a follower develop by showing or telling the follower what needs to be done and how to do it

Supportive coaching

facilitating follower learning by asking questions, allowing the individual to learn through trial and error, and serving as a resource for the follower's journey of discovery and development

Motivation

the forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action

Intrinsic rewards

internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action

Extrinsic rewards

rewards given by another person, typically a supervisor, such as pay increases and promotions

Systemwide rewards

rewards that apply the same to all people within an organization or within a specific category or department

Individual rewards

rewards that differ among individuals within the same organization or department

Hierarchy of needs theory

Maslow's theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and those needs exist in a hierarchical order

Hygiene factors

the first dimension of Herzberg's two-factor theory; involves working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships

Motivators

the second dimension of Herzberg's two-factor theory; involves job satisfaction and meeting higher-level needs such as achievement, recognition, and opportunity for growth

Acquired needs theory

McClelland's theory that proposes that certain types of needs (achievement, affiliation, power) are acquired during an individual's lifetime

Reinforcement theory

a motivational theory that looks at the relationship btw behavior and its consequences by changing or modifying followers' on-the-job behavior through the appropriate use of immediate rewards or punishments

Behavior modification

the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify behavior

Law of effect

states that positively reinforced behavior tends to be repeated and behavior that is not reinforced tends not to be repeated

Reinforcement

anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited

Positive reinforcement

the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence following a behavior

Negative reinforcement

the withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved

Punishment

the imposition of unpleasant outcomes on an employee following undesirable behavior

Extinction

the withdrawal of a positive reward, meaning that behavior is no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the future

Expectancy theory

a theory that suggests that motivation depends on individuals' mental expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards

Equity theory

a theory that proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance

Empowerment

power sharing; the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization

Engagement

when people enjoy their jobs and are satisfied with their work conditions, contribute enthusiastically to meeting team and organizational goals, and feel a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization

Employee ownership

giving employees real and psychological ownership in the organization as owners, people are motivated to give their best performance

Gainsharing

motivational approach that encourages people to work together rather than focus on individual achievements and rewards; ties additional pay to improvements in overall employee performance

Pay for knowledge

programs that base an employee's pay on the number of skills he or she possesses

Pay for performance

a program that links at least a portion of employees' monetary rewards to results or accomplishments

Job enrichment

a motivational approach that incorporates high-level motivators into the work, including job responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement

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