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energy

the ability to do work or cause change

kinetic energy

energy of motion; particles are in constant motion and the amount of motion depends on this thing that they possess.

faster movement

more kinetic energy

thermal energy

the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a sample of matter. it depends on the number of particles in a substance and the amount of energy each particle has.

hot water

has more thermal energy than the particles of snow.

temperature

the average kinetic energy of the individual particles of the substance.

heat

movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature

cooling of a substance

it loses thermal energy, which causes its particles to move more slowly and its temperature to drop.

metal and sand

examples of substances that have a low specific heat because they require only small amounts of heat to cause their temperatures to rise.

water

example of a substance with a high specific heat

change of state

matter can change when thermal energy is absorbed or released.

melting

change from the solid state to the liquid state

melting point

temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid

melting and freezing point of water

0 degree C.

freezing

change from the liquid state to the solid state. as the liquid cools, it loses thermal energy. see page 113.

freezing point

the temperature at which a substance changes from the liquid state to the solid state.

vaporization

change from a liquid to a gas state

condensation

change from a gas to a liquid

sublimation

process of a substance going from the solid state to the gas state without ever being in the liquid state.

specific heat

a measure of the amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a substance 1 degree C.

solid and liquid states

during all changes of state, the temperature of a substance stays the same.

an object gains thermal energy

when it changes from a solid to a liquid, or when it changes from a liquid to a gas

an object loses thermal energy

when it changes from a gas to a liquid, or when it changes from a liquid to a solid.

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