the ability to do work or cause change
energy of motion; particles are in constant motion and the amount of motion depends on this thing that they possess.
more kinetic energy
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a sample of matter. it depends on the number of particles in a substance and the amount of energy each particle has.
has more thermal energy than the particles of snow.
the average kinetic energy of the individual particles of the substance.
movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature
cooling of a substance
it loses thermal energy, which causes its particles to move more slowly and its temperature to drop.
metal and sand
examples of substances that have a low specific heat because they require only small amounts of heat to cause their temperatures to rise.
example of a substance with a high specific heat
change of state
matter can change when thermal energy is absorbed or released.
change from the solid state to the liquid state
temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
melting and freezing point of water
0 degree C.
change from the liquid state to the solid state. as the liquid cools, it loses thermal energy. see page 113.
the temperature at which a substance changes from the liquid state to the solid state.
change from a liquid to a gas state
change from a gas to a liquid
process of a substance going from the solid state to the gas state without ever being in the liquid state.
a measure of the amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a substance 1 degree C.
solid and liquid states
during all changes of state, the temperature of a substance stays the same.
an object gains thermal energy
when it changes from a solid to a liquid, or when it changes from a liquid to a gas
an object loses thermal energy
when it changes from a gas to a liquid, or when it changes from a liquid to a solid.