Scientist who discovered the one gene to one enzyme rule.
One gene to one enzyme
Hypothesis that stated one gene codes for one enzyme, and that the code when mutated will affect only that enzyme.
Inborn error of metabolism
Gene mutation caused by hereditary mutations in alleles of a certain gene that affects metabolism of homogentisic acid.
Organisms that have a simple genetic makeup and are easy to conduct genetic experiments on.
Neurospora crassa is haploid for most of its life. (T/F)
Condition 1 occurs and condition 2 occurs; they are correlated.
Condition 1 results in condition 2; 1 causes 2.
Something known to cause mutation- inherited genotypic changes
Gene expression does not control metabolism. (T/F)
One-gene one-polypeptide relationship
One gene codes for one polypeptide.
The function of a gene is to inform the production of a single, specific polypeptide. (T/F)
The information in a DNA sequence is copied into a complementary RNA sequence.
The RNA sequence is used to create the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
The process of transcription then translation.
Replaces thymine in RNA sequences
Carries a copy of gene sequence in DNA to the site of protein synthesis at the ribosome.
Carries amino acids to the ribosome for assembly into polypeptides
Catalyzes peptide bond formation and provides a structural framework for the ribosome.
A piece of mRNA that codes for an amino acid.
An mRNA copy of a gene.
The sequence that is complementary to a codon.
Synthesis of DNA from RNA.
Viruses that use reverse transcription.
3 components required for transcription
1. DNA Template 2. The appropriate nucleoside triphostphates 3. RNA polymerase
Enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA.
a single-enzyme template binds and polymerizes hundreds of RNA bases at once.
A special sequence of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds tightly to.
The part of a promoter where transcription begins.
Transcription process in which RNA polymerase reads and unwinds DNA about 10 bases at a time.
Place on a DNA sequence that codes for the end of a transcription.
Specifies which amino acids will be used to build a protein.
The codon that codes for the beginning of a genetic code; is known as Methionine.(AUG)
Codons that code for the termination of transcription. THe three are UAA, UAG, and UGA.
Situation in which 1 codon codes for more than 1 amino acid.
Situation in which more than 1 codon codes for 1 amino acid.
All cells and organisms use the same genetic coding system. (T/F)
Noncoding sequences in DNA that are not expressed by RNA.
Sequences of DNA that are expressed in RNA
Nucleic acid hybridization
Process of intron location that requires denaturation of DNA, then incubated.
A single-stranded nucleic acid from another source, used in the incubation stage of nucleic acid hybridization
Introns interrupt and scramble DNA sequences of genes. (T/F)
Functional regions coded by exons.
Eukaryotic gene transcripts are coded before _________.
A chemically modified molecule of GTP. Facilitates binding of mRNA to the ribosome for translation.
Poly A Tail
Acts as a signal to cut the pre- mRNA.
Splicing of DNA is required for eukaryotic RNA formation. (T/F)
Process that removes introns from RNA sequences and leaves only the exons, the functional coding.
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles that bind to each end of an intron to splice it from the sequence
Short stretches of DNA that appear at the boundaries between introns ans exons.
Complex of RNA and proteins made by ATP that cuts the intron's ends off, and fuses the two exons together.
2 Duties of tRNA
1. Must read mRNA codons correctly
2. Must deliver the amino acids that correspond to each mRNA codon.
3 functions of tRNA
1. Binds to a particular amino acid, becomes charged.
2. Associates with mRNA.
3. Interacts with ribosomes.
A phenomenon in which the anticodon of a tRNA molecule does not have to be a perfect match for the codon it is binding to.
The molecular workbench where the task of translation is accomplished.
A (amino acid) site
Where the charged tRNA anticodon binds to the mRNA codon and lining up the correct amino acid to be added.
P (polypeptide) site
Where the tRNA adds its amino acid to the polypeptide chain.
E (exit) site
Where the tRNA, having given up its amino acid, resides before being released into the cytosol.
Function of a ribosome that ensure that the tRNA is correctly bound to the mRNA.
Complex that consists of a charged tRNA and a small ribosomal subunit, which are both bound to the mRNA.
A chemical posessed by the ribosomal subunit.
rRNA is the catalyst. (T/F)
Ribosomal proteins that aid in the process of elongation.
Protein release factor
Factor that allows hydrolysis of of the bond between the polypeptide chain and the tRNA in the P site.
An assemblage consisting of a strand of mRNA with its beadlike ribosomes and their growing polypeptide chains.
an "address label" containing information on where the polypeptide belongs.
A receptor protein that receives a signal sequence. then directs it to the correct location.
Signal recognition particle
Blocks further protein synthesis until the polypeptide reaches the endoplasmic reticulum.
Polypeptide chains that have been to the Golgi apparatus, and have a sugar molecule bound to them.
The cutting of a polypeptide chain.
Addition of sugars to glycoproteins.
The addition of phosphate groups to proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation.
When the tRNA travels to the ribosome, it carries an amino acid with it. (T/F)
mRNA in eukaryotes is directly copied from DNA. (T/F)
In eukaryotes, the introns must be spliced out of the pre-mRNA before proceeding to the ________.
E (exit) site
tRNA exits the ribosome through the ______.
rRNA _________ the reaction that binds amino acids to the polypeptide chain.
The polypeptide chain, after being released from the ribosome, is directed to a new location by the __________ _______________.