What caused the Sunni-Shia split in the 7th Century?
The Sunnis believed a Caliph should be elected, but the Shia felt it should be a hereditary position.
Which three groups conquerred the area of Palestine (modern day Israel) and then expelled the Jewish people living there?
• New Babylonians (Chaldeans)
Which is the world's largest religion?
Which modern day country occupies the area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers?
What was the Mesopotamians view on religion?
Wrathful & vindictive Gods that they feared & believed there was no afterlife
Who was the Persian King known for his ruthlessness in battle and
to conquer the Greeks?
Who was the Byzantine King that
expanded his Empire to
it's greatest point?
Who led the Ottoman people
to one of their most
spectacular victories at
Which Ottoman Sultan made
massive reforms to
government, taxation, the
legal code and education?
Who was the new Babylonian King
famous for exiling Jews
from their homeland and
destroying the Temple of
Who attempted to conquer the
known world in order to
spread his religious
beliefs and freed the Jewish
slaves in Babylon?
Who was the old Babylonian King who
created the first unified
Who was a tribal leader left in the
wake of the Mongol
invasio and unified his
people into the Ottoman
Who was the ounder of a major
religion in the ancient
world which had profound
impacts on the 3
monothestic religions of
Who was the Akkadian king who
conquered the Sumerian
city states in 2350BCE?
True or False: The Persian Empire began in modern day in Iran and expanded from Asia to the Anatolian
peninsula, even reaching the Caucus region and Egypt.
Name 3 reasons why Hagia Sophia, the great Eastern Orthodox cathedral of Constantinople, was spared by the
Ottoman Sultan in 1453?
• He declared his wishes to turn it into a Mosque
• A symbolic gesture of mercy
• It contained priceless examples of Byzantine art
True or False: The teachings of Muhammad and the early Caliphs protects the rights of religious minorities in Muslim communities if they pay the Jizya.
Which Empires/Dynasties fought in the 1st and 2nd Crusades & spread Persian culture to the Anatolian Peninsula?
Which King built the city of Persepolis and made it his ceremonial capital during his conquests of much of the known world?
Which empire's greatest leader
the glory of Babylon and
built the Hanging Gardens?
Which empire was the rirst to use chariots in battle & iron weapons?
Which empire was a warlike nation that used forced exile to keep its people from uprising against them?
Which empire were seafaring merchants who coined the first money?
Which empire was enslaved by the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Chaldeans and eventually freed by Persians?
Which empire, in the name of Zoroastrianism, set out to conquer the known world?
Which empire were seafaring merchants who created the basis for our alphabet?
Other than law, what field are the Old Babylonians most famous for their advances in?
The Gods of Mesopotamia were "anthropomorphic". What does this mean?
They were often half human and half animal.
True or False: The expansion of Islam & the spread of Middle East culture in the 6th and 7th Centuries AD reached all the way across North Africa to Spain.
True or False: The Egyptians built huge stone temples called Zigurats to honor their dead Pharaohs.
Why is the "Epic of Gilgamesh" important to students of history today?
It shows the fragility of life during those times and how harsh the Sumerians environment
What Sumerian city-state was Abraham's family from?
What was the primary occupation of the first people living in Mesopotamia?
Which of the apostles is most credited with the spreading of Christianity after Christ's death?
In which country are both Mecca & Medina, two of the holiest sites in Islam?
True or False: The tribes of Israel immediately split into two nations after the death of King David, becoming
Judea & the Kingdom of Israel.
What is the primary primary disagreement between Jews & Christians?
The divinity of Jesus Christ as the Messiah promised in the Old Testament.
What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
• Faith- in one God Allah and his prophet Muhammed
• Prayer- five times daily
• Almsgiving- charity work or donations for the poor
• Fasting- during the ninth month of the Muslim calendar
• Pilgrimage - to Mecca
Why is the Kaaba the most sacred site of the Muslim faith?
It sits on the site of a temple beleived to be built by Abraham.
What is the primary Holy Scripture of Islam?
During the Byzantine Empire, what was the issue that split the Catholic Church (into Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox)?
The veneration of icons
What were 4 accomplishments of Alexander the Great?
• Conquering much of the known world in his early 20's
• Building one of the greatest libraries of the ancient world
• Having dozens of cities named after himself
• Spreading Greek culture and learning
What was the Phoenicians greatest trading post?
Name the 4 oldest religions in order from oldest to newest by the time of their founding.
What was the capital of the Assyrians and contained a magnificent library of the ancient world?
Which leader is responsible for the building of the resplendent Topkapi Palace in Constantinople?
What is the leader of a Jewish religious service called?
Why was Abraham asked to kill his son Issac by God in the Biblical story?
As a show of faith
Do any of the monotheistic religions studied in class during this unit believe in reincarnation?
What are Shia Muslim religious leaders called?
Why was Mesopotamia a logical place for human civilization to begin?
The fertile land between the two rivers provided for plentiful agriculture.
What most directly caused the fall of Constantinople in 1453 to the Ottomans?
Superior military tactics by the Ottoman Sultan
Why did early Sumerian civilizations primarily use bronze to make weapons and armor?
The metal is stronger than either of its 2 components
True or False: In ancient and modern times, the majority of Egyptians have lived within a short distance of
the Nile River.
True or False: Muhammad wrote the Qu'ran himself to transcribe the revelations he had from the angel
True or False: Empress Theodora had great influence over her husband Justinian in the ruling and reforms of
the Byzantine Empire.
At which European Capital were the armies of Suleiman the Magnificent turned back?
Which group of people were the first to conquer the city-states of Sumeria?
What was the significance of Saladin of the Ayyubid dynasty?
He led his armies to several important victories against the Crusaders.
Who was the first mesopamian civilization?
What is the longest river in the world?