Speech science test 3

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Speech Science test 3

Inhalation

Diaphram contracts (moves down)
Ribe cage expands as rib muscles contract

To inhale

Lungs expand, volume of lungs gets larger, pressure drops, air will flow into lungs. Unequal pressure will equalize

respitory cycle

resting breathing speech
In: ~40% ~10%
Ex: ~ 60% ~90%

Exhalation

Diaprham relaxes (Moves up)
Rib cage gets smaller as rib muscles relax.
To Exhale: Reduce volumes, squeeze air particles, raise pressure, and exhale

Automaticity

Resting breathing is automatic; speech breathing involves active control over the process. The breathing just happens but adjustments are not automatic

Secondary muscles of inhalation

Added to the primary muscles in speech breathing (futher expand the ribcage)
-Pectoralis Major
-Pectoralis Minor
-costal Levators
-Serratus anterior
-serratus posterior superior
-Latissimus dorsi
-scalenus muscle group

Volume

Larger volume inhalation in speech that rest to accommodate energy for length/loudness of utterance.

Airways

enter through nose/mouth to pharyx to larynx

larynx

the voice box, located in the top part of the trachea, underneath the epiglottis (cartiloginous structure), a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea

Trachea

membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi, carries air between larynx and bronchi

bronchi

two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.

Bronchioles

progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways, the smallest tubes of the bronchus. Coming from the bronchi that contain clusters of alveoli at each end.

Alveoli

thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Air coming in rich in fresh O2
Air going out CO2 (waste air)

Lungs

Have NO musculature!
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration

How do Lungs change volume?

lungs resting on diaphram
-> raise and lower diaphram
-> can change lunge volume vertically
AND
Can make ribcage larger or smaller
-> change lung volumes
-> front to back side to side

Pleural linkage

mechanism by which lungs "linked" to thoracic wall - allows movements of rib cage to be transmitted to lungs so that lungs can increase and decrease volume without friction

Costal pleura

-Ribcage lining
- Covers the internal surface of the ribs and sternum
- Endothoracic fascia
- It goes anterior to posterior

phrenic nerve

one of a pair of nerves that arises from cervical spinal roots and passes down the thorax to innervate the diaphragm and control breathing

External intercostals

elevates rib cage for inhaling (expand the rib cage, inhalation muscles)

internal Intercostals

Draws the ribs together and depresses rib cage ( exhalation)

interosseous intercostals

pertaining to being situated between bones, as in muscles, ligaments, or vessels. Reduce the volume of the ribcage (exhalation)

interchondral intercostals

between cartilages, used to refer to parts of intercostal muscles running between cartilage parts of ribs (expand ribcage) inhalation

Resting inhale

1. contract diaphram
2. contract external intercostal
3. contract internal intercondral intercostal

resting inhale cont..Pressure will equalize

relaxation pressure take over:
1.elasticity-(coupled lungs+ribcage)
Bounce back to natural shape
2.Gravity-Lung ribcage, pulls ribcage to rest, aids in lowering
3.torque- untwisting of cartilige(nex to sternum)
>>> reduce thorasic volume which reduces lung volume and causes increase in pressure> causes exhale

resting exhale

Decrease in volume
increase in pressure
Bring system to REL=~ 40% vital capacity
need to inhale again signaled by the medulla

Primary muscles for inhalation

Diaphram
External intercostal
interchondral internal intercostal

Vital capacity

the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (usually tested with a spirometer) 100%volume= 7liters
BUT VC is 5 liters of air for max inhaltation and exhalation

2 extra liters?

residual volume; need at least 2 liters of air in lungs at same time or lungs will collapse

Relaxation Volume

40% VC=Resting Expiratory Level (REL)
Lungs want to be at 40% of vital capacity

Tidal breathing

normal, resting breathing. Amount of air exchanged is 1/10 of what is capable.(approx 5L)

Expiratory reserve

the volume of air that can be expired beyond the normal tidal volume by a maximum expiratory effort (1100ml)

Inspiratory Reserve

Air that can be forced in over tidal volume normall 2-3 liters

speech breathing

Typically take a larger breath than resting breathing
-expand volume more
-more air comes in to equalize pressure
-relaxation forces stronger

speech breathing cont.

1. inhale for speech-> primary and secondary muscles of inhalation
2. exhale for speech->SLOW DOWN EXHALE
control relaxation pressure to exhale quickly
"checking action"
as lowering use lifting muscles contract inhalation muscles during exhalation
3.exhalation muscles-> push system below 40% VC
Speech breathing 10:90
Resting breathing 40:60

Checking action

use of inhalation muscles during exhalation. After inhalation is complete, use inhalation muscles to counter(check) strong exhalation muscles

relaxation pressure curve

what happens when you inhale or exhale to a certain value of VC and allow relaxation forces to act.
>40% VC, you will exhale
<40% VC you will inhale
The larger the inhale, the more the muscles have to counter. Muscles have to constantly be adjusting. The further you are from 40% the relaxation pressure gets stronger

Larynx

-Situated on top of the trachea
-suspended from the hyoid bone

Supraglottal system

above the vocal folds, and larynx, sounds created above the glottis in the nasal, oral, and pharyngeal cavities

Laryngeal system

prevents foreign material from entering lungs
Laryngeal closure allows for vibration of vocal folds
responsible for respiration and speech production; primary job of vocal cords is to block airway while we eat, 2nd is speech production (valve and vibrator); hyoid bone, mandible, thoracic skeleton

Lower airway

Lower airway begins with trachea
(Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli) *FUNCTION: Oxygen & carbon dioxide exchange (occurs in alveoli)

epiglottis

a flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering

vocal folds

-Located in the larynx, originating from the thyroid and attaching to the arytenoids. Covered by mucous membrane.
-Attach to the vocal process of the arytenoids posteriouly and to the thyroid cartilage anteriorly at the thyroid notch. forming a V shape 2 arytenoids at the back.

Cricoid

ring shaped cartilage formed at the top of the trachea.
Large lamina (plate in the back)
narrow front and sides

vocal ligaments

Description/Location:
Paired ligaments which originate at the thyroid cartilage(at front) below the thyroid notch and insert into the vocal process(anterior part) of the arytenoid cartilages.
-The intermost part of the fold



Function:
1. They give shape to the inside edge of the vocal folds
2. They can stretch up to 50% of their original length when acted upon by outside forces.

INTERMOST PART OF THE VOCAL FOLDS

Arytenoid cartilages

Two small, pyramid shaped cartilages. Vocal folds are attached. Connected to cricoid through cricoarytenoid joint which permits circular and sliding movement.

thyroid cartilages

largest (adams apple)
Looks like a shield (Thyros) greek for shield
anterior to the arytenoids
articulate with cricoid bone

Musculature and VF positions ABDUCTION

-Resting position(in resting position vocal folds are open)

Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle PCA

An abductor muscle. Arises form the back wall of cricoid cartilage. Inserts into muscular processes of the arytenoid cartilages. They are the major muscles responsible for rocking and gliding the arytenoids apart. They are the major muscles that abduct(pull apart) the vocal folds. THE ONLY MUSCLE THAT OPENS VF'S

Adduction

-vocal folds must be brought together to initiate voicing.
-whenever use voiced sounds use INT BUT when producing VCD speech sounds but NO vocal tract sounds all ADD LCA

Interarytenoid muscles INT(all voiced sounds)

-Closes vocal folds
, Description/Location:
1. Attached between the arytenoid cartilages.
2. Comprising the transverse (attached at the base) and oblique (from tip to base) interarytenoids.

Function:
Aid in adduction by causing the arytenoid cartilages to slide together.

USE INT ONLY

VCD consonants, stops, frics, affrics
2 things :
-vocal folds closed to vibrate creating alot of air pressure
- doesn't close folds as tighlty for VCD consonants as for VCD sounds with out vocal tract source

Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles LCA

Used for voiced sounds without a vocal tract source:
Vowels, dipthongs, semivowels(glides,liquids), nasals

Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation

MYO-Muscles
ELASTIC- elasticity of folds
AERODYNAMIC-airflow and air pressure
1.muscles close folds "adduct" "ready them for vibration(phonation)" causing as increase in air pressure
2. pressure will eventually blow VF's apart "abduct"
3.Vocal folds are sucked back together again by the negative pressure. I.e Bernoulli effect; high velocity air flow through a narrow region resulting in drop in pressure. The negative pressure is a vacuum.
CYCLE REPEATS

Positive sub-glotal pressure

Closing folds-> get build up of air pressure beneath folds

Vocalis muscles

the vibrating parts of the vocal folds also known as the thyroarytenoid mucles

thoracic wall

Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum and associated muscles Thoracic cavity: space enclosed by thoracic wall and diaphragm. Diaphragm separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity, surrounds cavity protects contents participates in breating

medulla oblongata

the lobes that coordinate vital functions, such as those of the circulatory and respiratory systems, and transport signals from the brain to the spinal cord

costal pleura

-covers internal surfaces of the thoracic wall (sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, intercostal muscles and membranes, sides of vertebrae)
-separated from wall by endothoracic fascia

Pulmonary pleura

This is the name for organ that covers the lung. It is primarily epithelial tissue and secretes a serous fluid that lubricates, reduces heat build-up, and creates surface tension that helps us breathe.

relaxation pressure curve

Restoring forces during expiration: "the greater you distend or distort chest wall the greater is the force required to hold it in that position and the greater is the force with which it returns to rest. No musculature involved

vertical phase difference

The slight time lag between the opening and closing of the inferior and superior portions of the vocal folds, creates wave like motion

Superior laryngeal nerve

nerve supply to the cricothyroid muscle

recurrent laryngeal nerve

Innervation of all intrinsic laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroid

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