-Attacking the person instead of the argument proposed by that individual.
-An argument directed to the personality, prejudices, previous words and actions of an opponent rather than an appeal to pure reason.
-An argument that appeals to the prejudices of the audience and thus strays from the topic.
-Latin for "against the man."
A group of words that modifies, as a single unit, a verb, verb form, adjective or another adverb.
-A fiction or nonfiction narrative, in which characters, things, and events represent qualities, moral values, or concepts.
-Playing out of the narrative is designed to reveal an abstraction or truth.
A reference, explicit or indirect, to a person, place, or event, or to another literary work or passage.
-A comparison to a directly parallel case, arguing that a claim reasonable for one case is reasonable for the analogous case.
-A comparison made between two things that may initially seem to have little in common but can offer fresh insights when compared.
-Used for illustration and/or argument.
-Repetition of a word, phrase or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row.
-Deliberate form of repetition to reinforce point or to make it more coherent.
A brief recounting of a relevant episode.
-Denotes a writer's intentional drop from the serious and elevated to the trivial and lowly, in order to achieve a comic or satiric effect.
-An event (as at the end of a series) that is strikingly less important than what has preceded it.
-The transition towards this ending.
A balancing of two opposite or contrasting words, phrases or clauses.
Pithy statement of a maxim, an opinion, or a general truth.
Nonessential word groups (phrases and clauses) that follow nouns and identify or explain them.
-Meaning: model, example, standard, original, classic.
-Elemental patterns of ritual, mythology and folklore that recur in the legends, ceremonies and stories of the most diverse cultures.
-In literature, applies to narrative designs, character types, or images which are said to be identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature, as well as myths, and even ritualized modes of social behavior.
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words, usually with different consonant sounds either before or after the same vowel sounds.
Sentence where commas are used with no conjunctions to separate a series of words.
-A sudden drop from the sublime or elevated to the ludicrous.
-Another word for anticlimax.
Adopted to signify verbose and inflated diction that is disproportionate to the matter it expresses.
Means to expurgate from a work any passages considered indecent or indelicate.
Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y Y X.
coin a verb
To "____ _ ____" is to "invent a verb."
Shared beliefs or assumptions between the reader and the audience.
A self-evident, obvious truth, especially one too obvious to mention.
Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity.
Following certain conventions, or traditional techniques of writing.
A critical approach that debunks single definitions of meaning based upon the instability of language.
Reexamines literary conventions in light of the belief that because of the instability of language, the text has already dismantled itself.
Repetition of a word with one or more in-between, usually to express deep feeling.
-Archaic meaning: a prolonged discourse.
-A bitter and abusive speech or writing.
-Ironical or satirical criticism.
-Fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking.
-Designed to expound a branch of theoretical, moral, or practical knowledge, or else to instantiate, in an impressive and persuasive imaginative or fictional form, a moral, religious, or philosophical theme or doctrine.
The term is used to indicate a word or phrase that is deliberately ambiguous, especially when one of the meanings is risqué or improper.
Reducing an argument or issue to two polar opposites and ignoring any alternatives.
-Appealing to the emotions of the reader in order to excite and involve them in the argument.
-Makes use of pathos: the quality in an experience, narrative, literary work, etc., which arouses profound feelings of compassion or sorrow.
-Formal and sustained similes that are developed far beyond its specific points of parallel to the primary subject.
-Primary subject is called "tenor."
-Secondary subject (the simile) is called "vehicle."
A quotation or aphorism at the beginning of a literary work suggestive of the theme of the fiction or nonfiction text.
A short clever saying parting truth.
-Originally, in Greek, _____ meant "an inscription."
-Extended to encompass a very short poem whether amorous (sexual love), elegiac (longing for the past), meditative (contemplative), anecdotal (description, story, episode), or satiric (witty, sarcasm).
-Poem is polished, condensed, and pointed, often with a witty end. In other words, it is pithy.
-Essayists sometimes cite another writer's ______, by first setting the _____ off within the body of the essay, and then by reacting to the insightful content of the _____ as the essay continues.
An instance or moment of revelation.
Denotes an adjective or adjectival phrase used to define the special quality of a person or thing.
Special type of pun that makes use of a single word or phrase which has two disparate meanings, in a context which makes both meanings equally relevant.
-When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect him or her based upon a presentation of self through the text.
-Reputation of the author is often a factor in ________ _________s.
-Regardless of the topic or over-all purpose of the essay, the _________ _______ is always done to gain the audience's confidence.
-Etymology: Greek, ____, meaning "moral character, nature, disposition, habit, custom."
-A person's character or disposition.
-The ethical basis for an argument in an essay; the authority of the author; the credibility of the author; the good will of the author.
-The characteristic spirit or prevalent tone of a people or a community or that of the author in an essay.
-The essential identity of an institution or system or a written work.
-Ideal excellence; nobler than reality.
Has come to mean: to speak well in the place of the blunt, disagreeable, terrifying or offensive term.
-A pressing or urgent situation for the author.
-That which is moving the author to write the essay; the power behind the tone, purpose, point of view in the essay.
Background information provided by author to enhance the audience's understanding of the context of a fiction or nonfiction story.
Sentence consisting three or more very short independent clauses joined by conjunctions.
A bold overstatement or extravagant expression of fact, used for serious or comic effect.
-Use of images, especially in a pattern of related images, often figurative, to create a strong, unified sensory impression.
-Use of sensory details to create images that support the theme of the essay.
-Variation of the normal word order (subject, verb, complement) which puts the verb or complement at the head of the sentence.
-The sentence element appearing first is emphasized more than the subject that is buried in the sentence.
Might be simple reversal of literal meanings of words spoken or more complex, subtle, indirect and unobtrusive messages that require the collection of hints from within the text.
Instead of using occasional verbal irony, the author introduces a structural feature which serves to sustain duplicity of meaning.
Involves a situation in a play or narrative in which the audience shares with the author knowledge of which the character is ignorant.
When the writer shows a discrepancy between the expected results of some action or situation and it actual results.
Assertion of an affirmative by negating its contrary.
The embodied thought, the logic, including the evidence and the reasons, for the tone, purpose and point of view of the author in the essay written.
Unnecessary repetition that is exaggerated, sensational and overly dramatic.
A figure of speech that compares two things directly which are basically dissimilar.
A figure of speech where the term for one thing is applied for another with which it has become closely associated in experience, or where a part represents the whole.
A long speech by one person; a dramatic speech by one actor.
The atmosphere in the text created by the author's tone towards the subject.
Extended fictional narrative that centers upon nature and excluding supernatural or spiritual elements, with special attention to effects of environment and heredity on human nature and action.
Features author's subjective responses to people and events covered in essay.
extended fictional narrative that allows greater complication of plot and more subtle examinations of character.
Fictional narrative of middle length
A figure of speech in which two contradictory words are placed side-by-side for effect.
Any song of joy, praise or triumph.
A statement that reveals a kind of truth, although it seems at first to be self-contradictory and untrue.
Sentence construction which places in close proximity two or more equal grammatical constructions.
-Imitates the serious materials and manner of a particular work, or the characteristic style of a particular author, and applies it to a lowly or grossly discordant subject.
-An exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes.
The emotional appeal in an essay.
Sentence that places the main idea or central complete thought at the end of the sentence, after all introductory elements.
Sentence that uses "and" or other conjunctions multiple times with no commas to separate items in a series.
post hoc, ergo propter hoc
When a writer implies that because one thing follows another, the first caused the second.
A play on words that are either identical in sound (homonyms) or similar in sound, but are sharply diverse in meaning.
Signifies a sudden heightening of rhythm, diction, and figurative language that makes a section of verse or prose—especially a descriptive passage—stand out from its context.
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue.
A line, or part of a line, or a group of lines which is repeated in the course of a poem or an essay.
The art of mustering relevant opposing arguments.
The art of effective communication, especially persuasive discourse.
-In rhetorical discussions, it is better to restrict the term to obvious praise or dispraise.
-________ is a form of verbal irony.
Text that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of human behavior by portraying it in an extreme way.
-What is perceived as an excess of emotion to an occasion.
-In a more limited sense, refers to overindulgence in the "tender" emotions of pathos and sympathy.
Words in an essay that alert the reader to a change in tone, direction, section, or category.
A figure of speech, comparing two essentially unlike things through the use of a specific word of comparison (like, as, or than, for example).
-Argues against a claim that nobody actually holds or is universally considered weak.
-Diverts attention away from the real issues.
The choices in diction, tone, syntax that a writer makes.
A form of argument or reasoning, consisting of two premises and a conclusion.
An object, place, setting, prop, event or person that represents or stands for some idea or event.
A part of something is used to signify the whole.
Ability to create a variety of sentence structures, appropriately complex and/or simple and varied in length.
Sentence structures that are extraordinarily complex and involved.
-A repetition of the same statement.
-The repetition, within the immediate context, of the same word or phrase or the same meaning in different words; usually as a fault of style.
Central idea of a work of fiction or nonfiction; an opinion developed.
Author's attitude toward subject matter as revealed through style, syntax, diction, figurative language, and organization.
Sentence consisting of three parts of equal importance and length.
The achievement of an illusion of reality in the audience.