vegetation becomes smaller and less diverse, leaving only plants that can survive in low-nutrients soils
What happens to plant life as nutrients are leached by water, down through the soil and past the rooting zone?
all of Earth's resources have the right to exist in a natural state, and that human's role should be that of citizen and protector instead of conqueror of nature
Aldo Leopold, considered to be one of the great conservationists of the 20th century, developed the idea of "The Land Ethic". This concept describes the philosophy that:
An earthquake that occurs in the ocean can cause a _______ when the water is suddenly dislocated en mass
mutation, natural selection, migration, and genetic drift
Four processes lead to evolution, they are:
Phosphorus is the _________
______ ; it is used in the transfer and use of energy within cells in chemicals such as ATP.
Human population has mostly grown _________.
As an alternative to clear-cutting, which forestry method removes all but a few mature trees with good genetic characteristics in order to promote regeneration of the forest?
Where a species lives is its
DNA is short for _________.
What farm animals produce the most methane waste?
___________ _________ in the earth's mantle lead to the movement of the plates
Following a severe storm on the sand dunes of Oregon, the process of grasses becoming established, followed by shrubs and eventually a forest growing on the dune is an example of what kind of natural process?
everything affects everything else
What does the principle of Environmental Unity say?
Inert gases have a __________ electron shell
sedimentary rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active fluids
Metamorphic rock forms from
In island ecology theory, the further away from the mainland an island is, the number of species on the island will be __________.
Typically, there are considered to be how many stages in the process of succession?
Two cactus species in a desert environment grow far apart from each other and do not interfere with each other's growth
Which of the following scenarios is an example of "chronic patchiness"?
species richness/biological diversity
The number of species in an area is a measure of _________ __________.
fundamental temperature niche
The temperature range in which species A occurs when it has no competition from species B is called its:
some set of conditions considered functional, sustainable, and natural
Restoration ecology is a field with the goal of returning damaged, degraded, or destroyed ecosystems to:
All individuals capable of interbreeding are called a __________.
Species that benefit each other but are not essential to each other are called _________ _________.
When a species disappears from a part of its range, it is known as _______ _______.
Which of the following is a micronutrient and is needed by plants in small quantities?
We call two plates moving toward each other ________ plates.
When one species indirectly affects a second species, it is called:
Douglas-fir regeneration responds well to:
the region of Earth where life exists
What is the Biosphere?
a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area, and sharing genetic information
Which of the following statements defines a population?
change in net population/the difference between birth rate and death rate
Growth rate is:
Which of the following is not a way in which we value the environment?
Maximum lifetime (longevity) is determined by:
declined, high, low
Birth rates have ______ faster in countries that have a ______ standard of living than in countries with a ______ standard of living
Which of the following examples cannot be considered a system?
be reduced by our own vices, such as wars, epidemics, and famines
Thomas Malthus advocated that human population will:
human population growth
What is the fundamental issue in Environmental Science?
The profession of growing trees is known as:
rise of agriculture
The did the first major increase in human population occur?
the death of trees due to pollution or disease
Indirect deforestation is defined as
cannot coexist in exactly the same habitat
Two species that compete for the same life resources and have exactly the same requirements
infrared, visible and ultraviolet light energy of sunlight breaks down molecules releasing toxins
The plastics of the great ocean garbage dump are being broken down by a process known as photodegradation, in which
Societies consisting of populations with exponential growth may exceed the area's ____________________ and thus be unsustainable.
The Gaia Hypothesis states that life _______ the environment for the ___________ of life.
In developed countries _____% of the people live in urban areas while ______% of the people live in rural areas.
relationship between organisms and their environment
Ecology is the study of
factors essential to life support functions of the ecosphere or ecosystem
An ecological justification places value on:
an increase in output leads to a decrease in further
Negative feedback occurs when ________ output
What can cause a population to continue to increase after a crash in resources and subsequent reduced fertilization rate?
(births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)
The equation for population change is:
A country with a high growth rate will display a ________ shape when graphed, indicating a large number of individuals in the younger ages.
occurs at a constant rate per time period
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
The big six macronutrients include:
transform fault boundary
The kind of plate boundary occurs where two places grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere?
What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate?
The three types of rock include all EXCEPT:
Through the processes of heat, pressure or chemicals, sedimentary rock can become ________ rock
The largest sink of nitrogen on earth is:
In the annual calcium cycle, the highest flux rates are in:
6CO2 + 6H20 + sunlight = C6H12O6 + 6O2
The chemical equation for photosynthesis is:
Free nitrogen (N2 uncombined with other elements) makes up about what _____% of Earths atmosphere:
Earths outer crust
The largest phosphorous stores on Earth are in the:
Chronic diseases are present in a _______ but _______ percentage of the population and include diseases such as heart disease, cancer and strokes.
rapidly, large, declines, reappear
In acute or epidemic diseases, a disease appears _________ in the population and affects a _______ percentage of the population and then _________ or almost disappears, only to ________ later.
a community of species and their nonliving environment in which energy flows and chemicals cycle
An ecosystem is
the set of environmental conditions within which a species is able to persist
An organism's ecological niche is:
the temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is competition from other organisms
The organisms realized temperature niche
can result in new species
Biological evolution _________.
According to Chapter 5 of the text, justifications for saving endangered species include all of the following EXCEPT
closing of canals and navigation channels
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the shrinking of wetlands?
increase in agriculture
Which does NOT result in an increase in biodiversity?
all of their nutrients coming from the air or rain
Ombrotrophic systems, such as bogs, are characterized by:
fresh lava rock
The following are ecosystems we may label as being in a secondary successional stage EXCEPT
When dune grass prepares a way for other species to grow, it is an example of _________.
preservation and wise use of all natural resources
Gifford Pinchot and Teddy Roosevelt coined the term conservation, meaning
Which of the following did NOT contribute to spotted owls population drop in the U.S.?
In forestry, which of the following is one of the alternatives to clear-cutting that leaves some trees on the stand?
For fun (any answer will be considered correct). What is the answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything?