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B1 M3 C22

cladogram

a diagram used in cladistics which shows ancestral relations between organisms, to represent the evolutionary tree of life.

monophyletic

Pertaining to a group that consists of multiple distantly related organisms, and does not include the common ancestor of the group. (Contrast with monophyletic, paraphyletic.)

paraphyletic

Pertaining to a group that consists of an ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants. (Contrast with monophyletic, polyphyletic.)

polyphyletic

Pertaining to a group that consists of multiple distantly related organisms, and does not include the common ancestor of the group. (Contrast with monophyletic, paraphyletic.)

plesiomorphic

is a characteristic that is present at the base of a tree (cladogram).

A scientific species name:

consists of both the genus and species names.

Which of the following lists the selected taxonomic categories in proper hierarchical order (from most inclusive to least inclusive)?

Phylum; Class; Family; Genus

The "father of taxonomy," __________, believed that the __________ was the special taxonomic ranking; today we emphasize __________.

Linnaeus; genus; species

synapmorphy

A trait that arose in the ancestor of a phylogenetic group and is present (sometimes in modified form) in all of its members, thus helping to delimit and identify that group. Also called a shared derived trait.

taxon

arrange, put in order] A biological group (typically a species or a clade) that is given a name.

Phylogeography

uses the genealogies of groups to understand processes of distribution.

From a cladistic point of view, groups are formed by ______________, while from a phenetics perspective, groups are formed by _______________.

special similarity; overall similarity

Sequencing DNA from different organisms has been a breakthrough for phylogenetics because:

we now have a method to determine the relatedness of organisms that leave no fossils.

holotype

When describing a new species, the systematist designates a single specimen as the official representation of the new species.

The first published formal system of systematic classification was called:

Systema naturae.

a lion's paw and a chimp's hand

represents homology

Which of the following statements is NOT correct about wings?

The most recent common ancestor of bats and insects had wings.

Convergent evolution:

results in homoplastic features.

Cladistic analysis is different from other taxonomic schemes because:

it relies only upon evolutionary relationships to determine categories.

Which of the following taxonomic groups does NOT include the phylum Echinodermata?

Ecdysozoa

In phylogenetic analysis, which of the following can be considered a binary character?

the presence or absence of scales

The disproportionate number of named species on earth are:

in the domain Eukarya.

Whose work is credited with providing the foundation for the development of systematics?

Carolus Linnaeus

Phylogenies:

must be created using intrinsic characters. ; The evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms or their genes.

clade

A monophyletic group made up of an ancestor and all of its descendants.

autapomorphy

a distinctive anatomical feature, known as a derived trait, that is unique to a given terminal group.

From a strict phylogenetic standpoint, at which hierarchical level should "birds" be placed?

order

Cladistic analysis is different from other taxonomic schemes because:

it relies only upon evolutionary relationships to determine categories.

In which of the following examples, are the pairs of traits homologous structures?

lobed-fins of lungfish; limbs of amphibians

anagenesis

An evolutionary change within an unbranched lineage; "phyletic change," is the evolution of species involving an entire population rather than a branching event, as in cladogenesis.

cladogenesis

evolutionary splitting event in a species in which each branch and its smaller branches forms a "clade", an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of sister species.

Which of the following is the sister taxon to birds?

dinosaurs

The only taxonomic group with standardized endings in zoological nomenclature is the:

family.

In a cladogram, an internal node represents:

a hypothetical ancestor.

The total number of character state changes found in a phylogenetic tree is called:

tree length

Which of the following groups would be placed nearest the fungi in a phylogenetic tree based on DNA sequences?

animals

All living organisms have evolved from a single common ancestor. The existence of which molecule lends the greatest support to this statement?

ribosomal RNA

When the phylogenetic relationship between three or more lineages is not clear, it is often represented in a tree by a:

polytomy.

polytomy

many temporal based branches, is a section of a phylogeny in which the evolutionary relationships can not be fully resolved to dichotomies.

paraphyly

the group consists of all the descendants of a hypothetical closest common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups of descendants (typically one such group).

homoplasy

A homoplasy is a character shared by a set of species but not present in their common ancestor.

Phylogeny:

is the evolutionary history of a specific organismal group.

According to animal classification nomenclature, which of the following suffixes is used to represent taxonomic families?

-idae

Which of the following statements is NOT correct about wings?

Bat wings are homologous to bird wings.; Which of the following are pairs of homologous features?
bear paw and bat wing

Which of the following changes in a data set would cause the largest increase in the number of possible tree topologies?

increasing the number of taxa

"Establishing a phylogeny for bacteria is more difficult than establishing a phylogeny for plants or animals." This statement is

correct because bacteria can engage in lateral gene transfer.

The basic unit of systematics is the:

taxon.

All of the living organisms that we can see with the naked eye are:

in the domain of Eukarya

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