The second song capital (1)
(Located on the east china sea)
(South of the Yangtze river)
~Gunpowder(explosives)(the tang created gunpowder years before)
City life of the wealthy(3)
~Very good(cushy) life.
~Could buy riches and delicacies from markets(fish, vegetables, books, jewelry)
~Women were carried in sedan chairs.(because of bound feet)
~Plays, and street acts for entertainment
~High rise houses(gardens, ponds, landscaping)
City life of the poor(4)
~Not too great life
~Welfare system(healthcare, orphanages, disaster relief)
~Small crowded simplistic homes
~Trade both on land and sea for goods
exports- gold, silver,copper, porcelain
~Moved the capital
Fall of the Song(5)
~Mongols invaded in the 1200's
~Genghis khan invaded northern china and Kublai later captured all of china
Battle tactics of the yuan(6)
~The mongols used horses with stirrups so they could shoot arrows while riding.
~The mongols surrounded their enemies
~The mongols used gift exchanges to form alliances.
~Lived with his to be bride(Berta) from the age of 9.
~Father was poisoned and Temujin became cheiftan at age 9.
~got kicked out of the clan by his uncles with his family
~Temujin joined a new clan and became their emperor at age 30.
~Around 1205 he united the mongols and became known as Ghengis Khan(universal ruler)
~His birth name was Temujin
~He united an army of 95,000 warriors(95 quaran)
~his body guards were called the imperial guards
~Created his own messanger system
~he conquered Mongolia, Northern China, Manchuria, Korea, Central Asia, Southern Russia.
~When he died he dived his empire between his sons and grandsons
~Riders carried messages on horseback through relay stations where they changed horses.
~Horses wore bells to alert the stations
~A message could travel 200 miles in a single day.
~Given the title "Great Khan" because he ruled Mongolia
~he took over small pieces of the songs territory.
~Ruled the southern part of northern china.
~He led a campaign into central Asia
~Was the grandson of Genghis.
~led a campaign through Russia and Europe.
~Was the leader of the golden hoard
~left the empire divided over multiple leaders
~lead by Batu
~Was feared throughout Europe
~Ransacked and pillaged villages for gold and other riches.
~Grandson of Ghengis
~Supported Chinese culture
~Educated by Chinese literati
~Did not use the civil service system
~Became the 3rd great khan
~Ruled over Mongolia and China
~In 1271 he called his Dynasty the yuan dynasty
~Was the 1st yuan emperor
~Ruled from Khan Belik(Beijing)
~invaded the southern song
~expanded the grand canal and the messenger system
Government System under Mongols(15)
~Heirarchy of Govt. Officials
~Similar to the song Govt.
Fall of Yuan(16)
~infighting among the generals
~The Yuan were hated by the Chinese
~The Grand canal collapsed and thus more compulsory labor was created
~Foreign traders were favored by the Govt.
~The yellow river flooded
~Too high taxes
~Secret revolution groups(The red Turbans)
~Zhu Yuan Zhang chased the final emperor out of china
~leader of the red turbans
~Founded the Ming by booting out the mongols
~Married the Daughter of the late leader of the red turbans
~ The word "Ming" means bright
~Big ships, for the time
~usually had 7 masts
~Supported oversea travel
~Built the Forbidden city
~Built the Temple of Heaven
~Started the ming tombs
~Was A naval captain who led the ming fleet on missions of Diplomacy, and trade.
~Led exbiditions for 30 years to Africa, India, japan, and the middle east.
~Brought home Gold, A giraffe, Silver, Pearls, Ivory, insense, herbs, and spices.
~Died in India
~Establishing friendship ties
~War and Alliances
~" The Conduct of Govt. Officials, of negotiations, and other relations between nations"
~Stopped overseas trade and travel in 1433
~Was Yongle's grandson
~Burned Ships, maps and all other artifacts from the era of trade
-Because he needed to stop trade and spend that money on fortifications
-Trade disagreed with Confucian beliefs
Ming Social Classes(25)
~Was based off Confucian beliefs
~Literati - advised the emperor
~Peasants- Made food and silk; Paid taxes
~Artisans - Manufactured goods
~Merchants - Bought and sold as parasites. leeched money off of other people's work.
Ming Tribute Systems(26)
~Set up a tribute system with Japan, Korea, and Tibet
~The Ming gave gifts in exchange for loyalty.
~The Ming gave gifts to nomads so the nomads would go and kill another tribe thus creating infighting.(Gave gifts for war fare)
~Started by yongle
~13 total tombs were built
~A.K.A. The Forbidden city
~Started By Yongle
~Where Govt. Officials lived and worked
~Only Govt. Officials and Members of the Emperors court could enter thus gaining the name "The Forbidden city"
Temple of Heaven(29)
~Built by Yongle
~Where the emperor prays for a good harvest
Fall of Ming(30)
~eunuchs gained too much power
~The Govt. Became divided
~government spent more time on goods than they took in with taxes
~Govt. Positions went unfilled
~soldiers stopped getting payed, so they quit
~Emperor Tianqi raised taxes
~Nurachi led Manchu invasion
~Became the emperor when his brother was kidnapped and the ming refused to pay the ransom
~Interested in carpentry
~let a eunuch adviser do all his work
~Had no interest in being emperor
~led the Invasion of the Northern territory in China
~ In 1616 Nurachi and Abahai(his son) took over part of the Ming territory in Manchuria and founded "The Later Jin Dynasty"
~The son of Nurachi
~Renamed the dynasty the Qing or bright
~Father of Shunzhi
"Later Jin Dynasty"(33)
~Was the original name for the Qing Dynasty
~Named by nurachi
~Dorgon rules for Shunzhi because he is too young to rule
~Was a rebel who took over the Forbidden city after it was abandoned
~was "Emperor" for 3 months
~Last ming emperor
~Feared the Manchu so he
~Hung himself and a loyal advisor
~Helped his two sons escape
~Ordered the death of all his family, and concubines
~The son of Abahai
~Had Dorgon as his regent
~Chinese had to learn Manchu(language)
~Chinese and manchu could not intermarry
~Chinese had to wear their hair in a Queque to show their submission to the Manchu rule
~The Manchu tried to end foot binding(did not work)
~Sweet potatoes(poor man's food)
~He revived Confucianism
~Brought back the civil service exams
~Sponsored the publication of an encyclopedia.
~Created flood control
~published the sacred edicts
The Sacred Edicts(40.5)
~Published by Kangxi
~Read to people every month
1.Respect your elders
2. Be frugal
3. Understand the importance of education(Scholarship)
4. Follow Confucian beliefs
5. Follow the Law
6. Pay taxes
~Constructed the summer palace
~A.K.A Hsien Feng
~Had a relationship with Cixi thus Tongzhi was born
~Ruled during the 2nd opium war
~Was a peasant brought into the palace as a concubine at the age of 16
~Had Tongzhi thus becoming the Empress Dowager
~Xianfeng's lady friend
~Cixi toppled the Qing with her horrible reforms and her horrible grasp on the People she ruled over.
~Was the heir to the throne
~Son of Cixi
~had his mother be his regent
~Was killed after he was 18 and could have ruled the dynasty
~Four year old nephew of Empress Cixi who was assigned the role of Emperor.
~He attempted to create reforms but his aunt cut him off and was thus locked up in the summer palace
Cause of the Opium Wars(46)
~The British got hooked on tea and ran out of silver so they found that Opium was in demand in china
~The British ships went to china empty thus they needed to att exports onto the ships so they weren't paying a crew to man an empty there for opium was the solution because it was grown in india.
~Hired by the emperor to stop the first opium war
~Wrote a letter to the queen that was never read
~Led the Canton opium party
Treaty of Nanking(48)
~An unequal treaty that ended the first opium war
1.The chinese had to give up 5 ports to the British
2.Britain got Hong Kong
3.China had to pay for damages(Reparations, Indemnities)(21 mil.)
4.All British gained extraterritoriality
5. Th U.K. did not have to tribute china to trade
6. The U.K. gained most favored nations status
~The rite which give foreigners living in a country to abide by the laws of their home country.
"Most Favored Nation"(50)
~The status which gives the country receiving the MFN status the same rites, and privileges as any other country.
~Payments for war damages
Convention of Beijing(52)
~Ended the 2nd opium wars
1.Europeans could travel through china
2.Europeans could travel on the Yangze river
3.Europeans could assign diplomats to the Qing Govt.
4.Europeans could perform missionary work.
5.The Qing had to pay indemnities
6.Opium trade was legalized
7.Several more nations were granted extraterritoriality
8.limited tax on European exports
9.The British promised to overthrow the taiping
Goals of the Taiping(53)
~Get rid of the manchu
~Wanted to create a "communist govt."
~led the Taiping
~Failed the C.S.E. many times so a missionary took him and taught him about Christianity.
~Hong then believed he was Jesus's brother
~Hong owned land so people joined him so they could get food
~He believed god wanted him to destroy all demons
~He believed that the manchu were demons
~He believed he needed to destroy all idols
~He founded the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace
~The Taiping colt
~They believed in a half Christian half Chinese religion.
"Kingdom of Heavenly Peace"(56)
~A communal Farm where people lived, worked, and prayed together.
Unequal Treaties of 1856(57)
~in the middle of the Taiping rebellion and the 2nd opium war
1.The British got an embassy in Beijing
2.Other foreign countries could create embassies.
3.China had to promise to protect all Christians
4.China had to open new ports on Chang Jang
5. Britain got a piece of land(macau) on the mainland near Hong Kong
6.Russia gained trade privileges
7.Russia was granted extraterritoriality
8.Russia got land to create the port of Vladivostok
Failure of the Taiping(58)
~Leaders lacked unity
~Leaders were incompetent
~Hong quit to indulge on other activities
-Hong thought god would protect him
-He later lost faith when his followers were burned
~Leaders fought each other
~The British were far too superior to the 60,000 followers of the Taiping
Goals of the Boxers(59)
~To remove all foreigners
~To get rid of Christianity
~To kill merchants
~Burn stores, churches, and Christian Schools.
~ Foreigners had put them out of work
~Foriegners had angered the Chinese spirits thus the famine and drought occurred.
~A Combined force of 8 nations with 20,000 men in total to put down the boxers and take over china.
8.The United States
Propaganda against the Boxers(62)
1.The 8 nation alliance could station troops in the forbidden city.
2.End of the Civil Service Exam
3.Ended the import of weapons
4.Govt. Officials were put on trial.(punished or killed)
5.The Qing had to make amends to Germany, and Japan for their lost diplomats.
6.The Qing were supposed to destroy their forts
7.Qing was supposed to make a monument for all of the foreigners killed by the boxers.
8.The Qing was supposed to pay 450,000,000 ounces of silver to the alliance.
~Is the Father of Tongzhi
~Was the emperor during the 2nd opium wars
~The mother of the heir to the throne
~The wife of Xiangfeng
~The empress consort
~The wife of the emperor
~Was the son of emperor and Cixi
~Never got to rule
~When he was 18 he was either killed by his mother or died from chicken pox.
~Wife of Tongzhi
~Was pregnant at the time and may have had a boy
~Was convinced to commit suicide by Cixi
~A little boy who was appointed to be the next emperor by Cixi
~Guangxu wanted to
1.Strengthen the military
2.Get higher education in china
3.Create a police force
4.Create a postal system
~Wanted to lock Cixi up in the summer palace
~Cixi found out so she locked him in the summer palace and killed his six advisors
Cixi's Expenditures/Luxury Items(71)
~Cixi loved to shop
1.She rebuilt part of the summer palace which was burned by the boxers
2. She Renovated her quarters in the Imperial palace
3.She created a marble boat for parties
Treaty of Shimoneski(72)
~The Japanese attacked in 1894
~The Japanese easily won and the chinese had to sign the Treaty pf Shimonoseki
1.China had to pay 20 million silver coins(Each weighing 1.3 ounces)(late japan asked for 30 million more)
2.The Japanese got four ports(Shashin, Chungking, Soochow, Hongchow)
3.Japan gained control of Taiwan and the surrounding islands.
4.Burma and Korea got their independence from China.
General Yuan Shikai(73)
~Informed Cixi of his plans to locker her up
~Europeans sold manufactured goods which put local businesses out of business
~Missionary were opening churches and schools which taught against ancestral worship.
~ Chinese military was no match for the European military.
-Cixi ignored the problem because she was too busy with shopping.
~Create a modern police force
~Create Higher Education for the masses
~Restrictions on opium trade
~End of the civil service tests
~The last Emperor of all of china
~Gained power when Cixi died
~Educated in the west(London, Hawaii)
~Organized the "Society to Revive China" in 1894
~Organized the "Revolutionary Alliance" in 1905
~He later changed the name to "The Nationalists""KMT"
Goals of the Nationalists(78)
~Get rid of the Qing
~To get rid of the foreigners
~Create a constitutional Govt.
~create a military
-Get modern weapons
~Pressured by the nationalists
1.Girls were allowed in schools
2.Wanted to introduce math, Science, and Geography
3.Started to create a military
4.Nationalize the railroads
5.Yuan Shikai organized the army
-promoted military as a career
~A strike was called against the railroads(boycott) this snowballed into 15/24 provinces
~Nationalists attacked a local HQ in Wuchang which spread to many other provinces.
~People began to rise up against the govt.
General Yuan Shikai(81)
~Became the first Ever president of all of china
~Was the general of the army
~Forced pu yi to step down
~Marched the army into the forbidden city
~Was ruled for by advisers
~he was forced to renounce the throne
~To step down without wanting to.
~A government in which the people rule through electing representatives.