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Thiol functional group

SH

Alcohol functional group

OH

An alcohol with one alkyk group attached to it's carbon is known as what

primary alcohol

IUPAC: CH3-CH2-CH2-OH

propanol

IUPAC: CH3-OH

Methanol

Common: CH3-CH2-CH2-OH

Propyl Alcohol

Common: CH3-OH

Methyl Alcohol

Common: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3-OH

Butyl Alcohol

Prefix for 1,3 atom separation

Meta

Prefix for 1,4 atom separation

Para

Prefix for 1,2 atom separation

Ortho

IUPAC: CH3-SH

Methanethiol

How do you name Thiols

alkane + "thiol"

IUPAC: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-SH

butanethiol

CH2=CH-CH2-SH

2-propenethiol

Functional group containing one oxygen between two single bonded carbons

ether

Common system of naming ethers

Attached groups in ABC order + "ether"

Common: CH3-O-CH3

dimethyl ether

Common: CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3

diethyl ether

IUPAC naming system of ethers

alkoxy group + main alkane chain

IUPAC: CH3-O-CH3

methoxymethane

IUPAC: CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3

ethoxyethane

IUPAC: CH3-O-CH2-CH2-CH3

methoxypropane

IUPAC: CH3-CH2-O-Benzene

ethoxybenzene

What functional group contains an oxygen(s) atom in a carbon ring

Cyclic ethers

Cyclic ethers are known as ________ compounds because they have 1+ non-carbon atoms

heterocyclic

What naming system is used for cyclic ethers

Common

A pentagon cyclic ether (4C-1O) is called

furan

A hexagon cyclic ether (5C-1O) is called

Pyran

Cyclic ethers with 2+ oxygen atoms are called

dioxanes

Term used for a group of highly toxic compounds of dioxanes bonded to aromatic rings

dioxins

What makes alcohols water soluble?

hydrogen bonding

Lowest boiling point

Alkanes

Highest boiling points

Alcohols

Intermediate boiling points

Ethers

Carbon cutoff for alcohols soluble in water

4

Are ethers water soluble

Yes

Which is more water soluble; ethers or alcohols

alcohols

Reaction where H and OH are removed from adjacent carbons, leaving double bonds, and one H20 molecule

Alcohol dehydration

Dehydration reaction catalysts

H+ and Heat

Reaction: Dehydration of alcohols at lowest temperature

Ether formation

What reaction takes place when Hydrogen is lost and oxygen is gaines

Oxidation

The oxidation of primary alcohols produces what functional group

Aldehyde

What is an aldehyde

O=C-H

The oxidation of secondary alcohols produces what functional group

ketone

What is a ketone

O=C

What is the catalyst for oxidation reactions

[O]

When aldehydes oxidize further they become

carboxylic acid

Reaction: Removal of the hydrogen of a hydoxyl and a Hydrogen attached to corresponding carbon

alcohol oxidation

What are thiols only reaction

Oxidation

Reaction: Hydrogen atoms are removed from a sulfhydryl group

Thiol oxidation

The product of an oxidized thiol is called a

disulfide

What is a S-S group called

disulfide

Why don't tertiary alcohols oxidize

Carbon to carbon single bonds are too hard to break

Rule: In alcohol dehydration hydrogen is removed from the carbon with the smallest number of hydrogen atoms to form alkene

Saytzeffs Rule

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