McCulloch vs. Maryland
Supreme Court case in 1819, defended the idea (originally Alexander Hamilton's) of implied powers being given by the Constitution to the government
Missouri Compromise Date:
James Monroe ID:
Fifth president of US, 1817-1825 ('Era of Good Feelings'→ decline of Federalist Party), from Virginia. Was James Madison's secretary of State. Missouri Compromise was reached and 'Monroe Doctrin' announced
Year of banning on international slave trade in the US:
John Marshall ID:
Chief Justice of Supreme Court 1801-1835. Federalist and helped balance the Republican Presidency and Congress. Famous for Marbury vs. Madison and McCulloch vs. Maryland
Three indicators of the demise of slavery from 1783-1808
• Congress banned international slave trade in 1808
• Washington and some other prominent slave owners freed their slaves upon their deaths
• Slavery was banned in the Northwest Territory
• Northern states all eliminated slavery by 1804
• Jefferson and other leading Southerners hoped the next generation would phase out slavery
List three features of the Missouri Compromise:
• Missouri entered the U.S. as a slave state
• Maine entered the U.S. as a free state
• Slavery was banned from the Louisiana Purchase territory north of Missouri's southern border (except for Missouri)
The Erie Canal ID:
Canal built from the Hudson River to Lake Erie in New York. The longest canal in the U.S. when built and took eight years to build (1817-1825) increased economic traffic between the Great Lakes and New York City→ made New York the economic capital of the U.S.
The American System ID:
Governmental program of tariffs and transportation funding created in the War of 1813. Main supporter was Henry Clay→ issue of nationalism: tariffs would help support the creation of American industry. Federal funding of roads and canals→ link together the country. Tariffs were adopted, transportation→ National Road.
Refined manners and social standing. Defined by material possessions→ fine furniture, china place settings, and clothing→ larger demand for consumer goods→Industrial Revolution
Year first factory was established in the US:
Samuel Slater ID:
Skilled mechanic born in England→memorized the construction of English textile manufacturing factories and went to U.S→ reproduced the machinery for a textile mill, which he built at Pawtucket Falls, Rhode Island.
Three reasons the U.S. did not develop many labor unions in its early Industrial Revolution
• The availability of land in the West meant that if someone was truly dissatisfied with the industrial labor, he could move on.
• The conflicts and distrust between men and women, whites and blacks, and native-born Americans and immigrants kept workers from seeing their common interests.
• The conditions in the new factories were actually a step up for many of the workers, especially the new immigrants.
• Many of the early workers were employed precisely because they were on the outside of the mainstream labor pool; therefore they did not have much bargaining power.
The Waltham System ID:
Francis Lowell→Boston Associates set up new textile mills in the 1820s and hired young, unmarried women as workers. Brought income to the women's families→sense of a new position in society. Partly an economic system (they were able to pay the women less than men), but it was also a social system
List three great waves of immigration in U.S. history
• 1830s, 1840s, 1850s: Irish and German immigrants
• 1890 - 1920: Eastern and Southern European immigrants
• 1980 - present: Mexican, Central American (and some East Asian) immigrants
List pull factors for the Irish and German immigrants in the 1830-1850's
• The availability of land (so, the possibility of land ownership)
• Comparatively good wages in the U.S. factories
• Promise of political and religious freedom
Irish Potato Famine ID:
a disease (the potato blight) hit the potato crop, which destroyed the plants. The result was mass starvation. Out of a population of about 8.5 million, about one million Irish died from starvation or related diseases. A further one million emigrated, mostly to the United States.
The Adams-Onis Treaty ID:
a.k.a: Transcontinental Treaty. Signed in 1819 by the U.S. Secretary of States (Adams) and the Spanish foreign minister (Onis). Gave Florida to the U.S., in exchange for money. It also drew a boundary line between Spanish and U.S. territory, stretching all the way to the Pacific coast - the first time that the U.S. laid claim to territory touching the Pacific Ocean.
The Monroe Doctrine ID:
A policy set out by President James Monroe (mainly written by John Q. Adams) in 1823 that stated that any attempt by European powers to re-colonize former colonies in the Western Hemisphere or any attempt to set up new colonies would not be accepted by the United States and be considered as a hostile move against the United States.
The 'corrupt bargain' ID:
Deal that Henry Clay made to give his support to John Q. Adams in the House of Representative vote for president in the 1824 election. John Quincy Adams became president, and then he appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State - hence, the 'bargain.' The name was given by supporters of Andrew Jackson, who thought he should really have become president.
Monroe Doctrine announced Date:
List at least three things John Q. Adams wanted to see the federal government directly support
• A national university
• Internal improvements (building roads and canals)
• Manufacturing and agriculture
• Higher tariffs
Henry Clay ID:
Speaker of the House of Representatives.Principal author of the Missouri Compromise. He tipped the election of 1824 to J.Q. Adams. An early supporter of high tariffs. Led the compromise that ended the Nullification Crisis - which lowered tariffs.
List at least three people who ran for president in 1824
• John Quincy Adams
• Andrew Jackson
• Henry Clay
• John Calhoun
• William Crawford
List at least three presidents of the 'Virginia Dynasty'
List at least three ways in which Andrew Jackson represented a significant change in politics in the U.S.
• Under his term, voter qualification was broadened considerably (essentially universal white male suffrage)
• He started a new political party: the Democrats
• He was the first president from a 'western' (non-original) state
• He was seen as a 'man of the people' with a lot of grass roots, broad support
• He was seen as a strong supporter of the 'spoils system'
Ordinance of Nullification ID:
A law that South Carolina passed in 1832 that declared that federal tariffs were null and void in South Carolina. Andrew Jackson- sent the U.S. military to enforce the tariff. This stand-off was ended by a compromise brokered by Henry Clay.
The 'spoils system' ID:
concept of a president using his victory to rewards his followers by giving them jobs in the federal government. became popular under Jackson's rule
"The Battle of the Bank" ID:
In 1816, the second national bank was chartered for twenty years. It helped to regulate currency in the country and controlled inflation → shortage of cash in rural areas, and many people in these areas viewed it as a vehicle for rich people from urban areas to control the country. Jackson, a Westerner, ran against the renewal of the bank's charter and vetoed it when it was passed.
Year Jackson was elected president
1828 and 1832
Place the following correct chronological order:
1. Martin Van Buren elected
2. The Corrupt Bargain
3. The Monroe Doctrine announced
4. The Nullification Crisis
5. The Battle of the Bank
3.The Monroe Doctrine announced
2.The Corrupt Bargain
4. The Nullification Crisis
5. The Battle of the Bank
1. Martin Van Buren elected
List three major figures from the Whig party
William Henry Harrison, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster
Whig Party ID:
A party organized in 1832 to oppose Andrew Jackson. It grew out of J.Q. Adams' National Republicans. While they finally elected W.H. Harrison as president in 1840, for most of the decade of the 1830s, they were a very loose and disorganized party.
Know Nothing Party ID:
A secretive political party that was founded in 1849. Officially called the 'Order of the Star-Spangled Banner.' The party arose out of native-born American fears about immigration, especially Catholic immigration from Ireland and Germany. Early members refused to identify themselves publicly, saying they 'knew nothing' about the party. The party gained some political power in the 1850s but died out as the country divided itself over slavery.
List at least three political parties that existed in the U.S. sometime during the years 1790 to 1840
❏ National Republicans,
❏ Democrats, and
Year Indian Removal Act passed
Trail of Tears ID:
Indians from Northwest Territory were forced to move to what is now Kansas, Oklahoma and Nebraska.Thousands died in this forced move - as many as 25% of the people forced to move.
The Indian Removal Act ID:
An act passed by Congress in 1830. It funded the forced removal of Indians from the U.S. Southeast beyond the Mississippi River. Jackson and his supporters thought this was a humanitarian gesture, to remove them from possible conflict with whites.
List at least three writers of the Romantic era
• Nathaniel Hawthorne
• Edgar Allen Poe
• Herman Melville
• Walt Whitman
• Henry David Thoreau
An intellectual movement in the U.S. from the 1830s to the 1860s. It was a reaction to perceived lifeless Age of , a reaction to the new industrial. This movement was expressed in both writing and painting. In both, the artists valued feeling & intuition over logic.
An offshoot of Romanticism. It developed in New England, and was mostly expressed in writing. Writers emphasized a mystical, intuitive way of looking at life. Had a great reverence of nature, focused on individuals, and were generally wary of organized religion & institutions.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
She was a leader of the early women's rights movement in the 1840s. She was one of the organizers of the 1848 Seneca Falls women's rights convention, which drew up a declaration of women's rights modeled on the Declaration of Independence. She later worked with Susan B. Anthony towards a constitutional amendment for women's voting rights.
List Name three prominent figures in the women's rights movement of the mid-19th century
• Lucretia Mott
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton
• Susan B. Anthony
• Frances Wright
• Ernestine Rose
List three social movements in the U.S. in the 1830s and 1840s
• Labor movement
• Women's rights movement
• Prison reform
• Mental hospital establishment
• Temperance movement
• Public education
Nat Turner ID:
A slave who led an uprising in 1831 in Virginia. He led about 70 slaves, killing their masters. His small army was attacked by soldiers and dispersed. Turner was eventually caught and hanged. His rebellion was important because it hardened slaveholders views: stronger slave laws were passed as a result, censorship of abolitionist material followed, and southern whites in general became more militant defenders of slavery.
The Second Great Awakening ID:
A religious revival movement that reached its peak in the 1830s. It was a reaction to the decline in religious fervor that came with the growth of the Industrial Revolution and materialism. Leader: Charles Finney, focused on the idea of personal, believed what a person did while living affected his / her status in the afterlife. The promise of salvation, as well as the energy and emotion of the evangelism, attracted many followers to Baptism and Methodism.
Year Nat Turner's rebellion took place
Year Seneca Falls Convention took place