AP European History- Chapter 27

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Balkan Wars

Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912. Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Balkan War in 1913, Austria intervened to stop the war.

Berlin Conference, 1885

Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops. 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.

Black Hand

Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government.

Conscription

Forced recuritment into the army to meet the needs of war.

Charles I

(1887-1922)- Last Austrian Emperor abdicated Nov. 1918. The next day Austria was declared a Republic as was Hungary.

Entente Cordial

Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.

Archduke Franze Ferdinand

heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started WWI

Isolationism

Not becoming involved in global or regional events.

Joseph Joffre

French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Germany. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.

Kruger Telegram

William II sent Kruger of the Transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the Jamison Raid. Alerted Britain of the dangers from Germany.

V.I. Lenin

Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.

League of Nations

Allies worked out terms for peace with Germany, 1919, precursor to the United Nations

Lusitania

Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.

Battle of the Marne

A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality Germany lost the war.

Morocco Crisis, 1911

After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France colser. Germany gained nothing.

Nicholas II

The last tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Duma.

Gavrilo Princip

The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Treaty btw. Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2)Height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin

Treaty of Versailles

Negotiated by hte Big Three Germany was stripped of colonies Alsace and Loraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified until later)

Battle of Verdun

1916 German assult on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition, France won.

Triple Entente

1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia

Wilson's Fourteen Points

President Wilson's Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."

Woodrow Wilson

U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.

Zimmerman Telegram

German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico city telling him to promis the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.

Army Order #1

issued by the Petrograd soviet, shipped offices of their authority and placed the power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.

Bloody Sunday

In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertenly opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.

Bolsheviks

Majority group

Cheka

Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution"

Decembrist Revolt

Uprising in Russia mainly soldiers soon suppressed-first manifestation of the modern revolutionary movement inspired by idelolgy.

Fyodor Dostoevsky

Russian novelist

Duma

Popular parliament

Fundamental Laws

Issued by the Russian government in 1906. The tsar retained great power. The Duma was elected by universal male suffrage. The Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power.

Alexander Kerensky

Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.

General Kornilov

Wanted to be the savior of Russia. Tried to stage a coup- demanded the resignation of all minister Kerensky ordered him to turn over command. But soldiers refused to follow him.

Kronstadt Revolt

Rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base. Suppressed by the military. After the revolt Lenin introduced the N.E.P.

March Revolution

Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia

Mensheviks

Minority group

Mir

Peasant village assembly responsible to the government

October Manifesto

Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament-Duma.

"Peace, Bread, and Land"

Lenin's slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.

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