Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Age of Enlightenment Philosophers

Age of Enlightenment

2nd Reniassance
social change, progress
natural laws will solve every problem (isaac newton)
*critical of France

Montaigne

father of skepticism
not always a natural law to fix everything

David Hume

-agreed with montaigne, skeptic
sensory perception-"the mind is a bundle of impressions"
-critic of enlightenment

John Locke

1. Essay on Human Understanding
-man born w/ tablarusa (blank slate)
-learn from enviornment
2. A Treatise on Govt.
-informal contract between leader & governed ppl
-ppl have right to rebel when life, liberty, or property is threatened

Example of Locke's theory

Great Britain
-English Bill of Rights
Glorious Revolution

Thomas Hobbs

Leviathan-sea monster that was all powerful
-ppl are selfish, mean and fickle
-changed mind in a minute
ex: King then Lord protector then king again
-ppl needed absolute monarch who only gave them law and order

Bodin

Divine Right of Kings-monarchs represent God on earth, only answer to God
-ex: James I (Eng.), Louis XIV (France), Philip II (Spain)

Rousseau

Social contract-fromal contract between ruler & ppl., actual obligations
-rebellion if necessary
*considered 1st feminist
-supported breast-feeding, mother-child bond
*created educational system for poland, kept nationalism there
-critic of enlightenment
-said man should live simplistically, turn back to nature

General Will

by Rousseau
-everybody had right to vote, outcome is the general will
problem: no protection for minority rights & dictators would claim they were using general will when abusing power
-thought republic best form of govt. for general will but never worked so const. monarchy instead

Montesquieu

-wrote Spirit of the Laws*(most influential.gov't bk)
-claimed the idea of the balance of gov'tal powers between executive and legislature branches
-French aristocrat

English Government

-best because of checks and balances
1. magna carta
2. bill of rights
3. parliament controlled money

factors of type of govt.

1. wealth
2. climate
3. population
4. terrain
-no one govt would fit all of europe

Beccaria

Essays on Crime and Punishment- totally against death penalty
-longevity of prison terms worked and education should be offered for prisonsers
-criticized france for torture to gain confession

Emile

by Rousseau
-against classical education
-student learn what interested them & at own pace
-1 student w/ 1 teacher until graduated
problem: student would be dependant on teacher

Mary Wollstonecraft

A Vindication of the Rights of Women
-said country would never be a worl power until they gave women same rights as men
-leading feminist during French Revolution

Voltaire

-led the charge for constitutional limitation of monarchic power
-French

Physiocrats

-believed mercantilism was wrong
-believed wealth was based on land not bullion

Adam Smith

wrote: A Wealth of Nations
-Father of Free Enterprise
- promoted capitalism
-wealth should be based on a system of supply and demand
-

Emmanuel Kant

wrote: the critique of Pure Reason
-natural laws could not define everything
-some decisions based on intuition
wrote:What is the Enlightenment? Dare to know, use your own intelligence

Diderot

-editor for Encyclopedia, kept ideas of enlightenment alive
-put essays on social reform in Encyclopedia

philosophes

-Group of intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment
-Committed to the cause of reform

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set