Chapter 8: Water and Minerals

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minerals

naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous substances; chemical elements

major minerals

essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day

trace minerals

essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day

solvent

a substance that dissolves another and holds it in solution

dialysis

medical treatment for failing kidneys in which a person's blood is circulated through a machine that filters out toxins and wastes and returns cleansed blood to the body

water balance

balance between water intake and water excretion, which keeps the body's water content constant

dehydration

loss of water; symptoms progress rapidly, from thirst to weakness to exhaustion and delirium, and end in death

water intoxication

dangerous dilution of the body's fluids resulting from excessive ingestion of plain water

metabolic water

water degenerated in the tissues during the chemical breakdown of the energy-yielding nutrients in foods

diuretic

compound, usually a medication, causing increased urinary water excretion

hard water

water with high calcium and magnesium concentrations

soft water

water with a high sodium concentration

surface water

water that comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs

groundwater

water that comes from underground aquifers

aquifers

underground rock formations containing water that can be drawn to the surface for use

bottled water

drinking water sold in bottles

salts

compounds composed of charged particles (ions)

ions

electrically charged particles, such as sodium (positive) or chloride (negative)

electrolytes

compounds that partly dissociate in water to form ions, such as potassium or chloride

fluid and electrolyte balance

maintenance of the proper amounts and kinds of fluids and minerals in each compartment of the body

fluid and electrolyte imbalance

failure to maintain the proper amounts and kinds of fluids and minerals in every body compartment

acid-base balance

maintenance of the proper degree of acidity in each of the body's fluids

buffers

molecules that can help to keep the pH of a solution from changing by gathering or releasing H ions

hydroxyapatite

chief crystal of bone, formed from calcium and phosphorus

fluorapatite

crystal of bones and teeth, formed when fluoride displaces the "hydroxy" portion of hydroxyapatite; resists being dissolved back into body fluid

bone density

measure of bone strength, the degree of mineralization of the bone matrix

osteoporosis

reduction of bone mass of older persons in which the bones become porous and fragile

peak bone mass

highest attainable bone density for an individual; developed during the first 3 decades of life

hypertension

high blood pressure

prehypertension

blood pressure values that predict hypertension

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency or toxicity

cretinism

severe mental and physical retardation of an infant caused by the mother's iodine deficiency during pregnancy

hemoglobin

oxygen-carrying protein of the blood found in the red blood cells

myoglobin

oxygen-holding protein of muscles

heme

iron-containing portion of hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules

nonheme iron

dietary iron not associated with hemoglobin; iron of plants and other sources

MFP factor

factor present in meat, fish, and poultry that enhances the absorption of nonheme iron present in the same foods or in other foods eaten at the same time

tannins

compounds in tea and coffee that bind iron; also denature proteins

phytates

compounds present in plant foods that bind iron and may prevent its absorption

iron deficiency

condition of having depleted iron stores, which, at the extreme, causes iron-deficiency anemia

iron-deficiency anemia

form of anemia caused by a lack of iron and characterized by red blood cell shrinkage and color loss

anemia

condition of inadequate or impaired red blood cells; reduced number of volume of red blood cells along with too little hemoglobin in the blood

pica

craving for nonfood substances

iron overload

state of having more iron in the body than it needs or can handle, usually arising from hereditary defect

leavened

"lightened" by yeast cells, which digest some carbohydrate components of the dough and leave behind bubbles of gas that make the bread rise

fluorosis

discoloration of the teeth due to ingestion of too much fluoride during tooth development

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