LCO Chapters 11,12 &13 (AK)

40 terms by akolinsky

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Booster

A frequent shoplifter.

Fence

An individual or a group involved in the buying, selling, and distribution of stolen goods. Also called criminal receiver.

Gateway Offense

An offense, usually fairly minor in nature, that leads to more serious offenses. Shoplifting, for example, may be a gateway offense to more serious property crimes.

Jockey

A professional car theif involved regularly in calculated, steal-to-order car thefts.

Joyriding

An opportunistic car theft, often committed by a teenager seeking fun or thrills.

Occasional Offender

A criminal offender whose offending patterns are guided primarily by opportunity.

Offense Specialization

A preference for engaging in a certain type of offense to the exclusion of others.

Persistent Thief

One who continues in commom-law property crimes despite no better than an ordinary level of success.

Professional Criminal

A criminal offender who makes a living from criminal pursuits, is recognized by other offenders as professional, and engages in offending that is planned and calculated.

Snitch

An amateur shoplifter.

Asset Forfeiture

The authorized seizure of money, negotiable instruments, securities, or other things of value. In federal antidrug laws, the authorization of judicial representatives to seize all monies, negotiable instruments, securities, or other things of value furnished or intended to be furnished by any person in exchange for a controlled substance, and all proceeds traceable to such an exchange.

Bank Fraud

Fraud or embezzlement that occurs within or against financial institutions that are insured or regulated by the U.S. government. Financial institution fraud includes commercial loan fraud, check fraud, counterfeit negotiable instruments, motgage fraud, check kiting, and false credit applications.

Corporate Crime

A violation of a criminal statute either by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of and for benefit of the coroporation, partnership, or other form of business entity.

Costa Nostra

Literally, "our thing." A criminal organization of Sicilian origin. Also called the Mafia, the Outifit, the Mob, the syndicate, or simply the organization.

Environmental Crime

A violation of the criminal law that, although typically committed by businesses or by business officials, may also be committed by other people or by organizational entities and that damages some protected or otherwise significant aspect of the natural environment.

Ethnic Succession

The continuing process whereby one immigrant or ethnic group succeeds another by assuming its position in society.

Insider Trading

Equity trading based on confidential information about important events that may affect the price of the issue being traded.

Kefauver Committe

The popular name for the federal Special Committe to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce, formed in 1951.

Money Laundering

The process of converting illegally earned assets, originating as cash, to one or morealternative forms to conceal such incriminating factors as illegal origin and true ownership.

Occupational Crime

Any act punishable by law that is committed through opportunity created in the course of an occupation that is legal.

Omerta

The informal, unwritten code of organized crime, which demands silence and loyalty, among other things, of family members.

Organized Crime

The unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods and services, including gambling, prostitution, loan-sharking, narcotics, and labor racketeering.

Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO)

A statute that was part of the federal Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 and that is intended to combat criminal conspiracies.

Securities Fraud

The theft of money resulting from intentional manipulation of the value of equities, including stocks and bonds. Securities fraud also includes theft from securities accounts and wire fraud.

Transnational Organized Crime

Unlawful activity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups operating across national boundries.

White-Collar Crime

Violations of the criminal law committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupation.

Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program

A National Institute of Justice program, that tracks trends in the prevalence and types of drug use among booked arrestees in urban areas.

Dangerous Drug

A term used by the Drug Enforcement Administration to refer to "broad categories or classes of controlled substances other than cocaine, opiates, and cannabis products." Amphetamines, methamphetamines, PCP (phencyclidine), LSD, methcathinone, and "designer drugs" are all considered to be dangerous drugs.

Decriminalization

The redefinition of certain previously criminal behaviors into regulated activities that become "ticketable" rather than "arrestable."

Designer Drugs

"New substances designed by slightly altering the chemical makeup of other illegal or tightly controlled drugs."

Drug-Defined Crime

A violation of the laws prohibiting or regulating the possession, use, or distribution of illegal drugs.

Drug-Related Crime

A crime in which drugs contribute to the offense (excluding violations of drug laws).

Drug Trafficking

Manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, importing and exporting (or possession with intent to do the same) a controlled substance or a counterfeit substance.

Heroin Signature Program (HSP)

A Drug Enforcement Administration program that identifies the geographic source of a heroin sample through the detection of specific chemical characteristics in the sample peculiar to the source area.

Interdiction

An international drug control policy that aims to stop drugs from entering the country illegally.

Legalization

Elimination of the laws and criminal penalties associated with certain criminal behaviors--usually the production, sale, distribution, and posession of a controlled substance.

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)

A national survey of illicit drug use among people 12 years of age and older that is conducted annually by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)

A national office charged by Congress with establishing policies, priorities, and objectives for the nation's drug-control program. ONDCP is responsible for developing and disseminating the National Drug-Control Strategy.

Pharmaceutical Diversion

The process by which legitimately manufactured controlled substances are diverted for illicit use.

Psychoactive Substance

A substance that affects the mind, mental processes, or emotions.

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