a set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
a language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
variants of a satandard language along regional or ethnic lines are called...
a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs, but such a boundary is rarely a simple line
two people can understand each other when speaking
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
divisions whithin a language family where the commonalities are more definite snf the origin is more recent
division that covers a smaller extent of territory, and dialects, covering the smallest extent of territory
the first major lunguistic hypothesis, proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language
a language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that preceded it.
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
when a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of language breaks the language into dialects and then new languages
when people with different languages have consistent spatial interaction and their languages collapse into one
hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew where in he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 lang. families:Europe's indo-European lang. North African and Arabian languages and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
theory of how proto-indo european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans.
French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Portugese
English, German, Dutch, Norweigan, Swedish
Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian
a language used among speakers of different languages for the purpose of trade and commerce
when parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary.
a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
countries in which only one language is spoken, exist
countries in which more than one language is in use
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
a common language of trade and commerce used around the world
uniqueness of a location
what geographers call a place's name