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femur is an example of what bone

a long bone

phalanges is an example of what bone

a short bone

phalanges are

the finger or toe bones

the frontal and scapula is an example of what bone

a flat bone

the frontal bone is

the forehead bone

the scapula bone is the

shoulder bone

an example of the irregular bone is the

vertabre bone

the vertabre bone is the

back bone

the macroscopic structure of a long bone consists what two sections

the diaphysis and epiphyses

the _______ bone is found in the diaphysis section of a long bone

compact

the compact bone is the

hard outside part of the bone

yellow marrow is produced in what section of the long bone

diaphysis

the shaft is structured in the long bone in the.....

diaphysis section

in the diaphyses, the _______ cavity is present

medullary

the periosteum and the endosteum is found in the structure

of the diaphysis of a long bone

the macroscopic structure of the epiphyses is found on the _____ of bones

end

the _______ bone is found in the epiphyses structure of the long bone

spongy

the spongy bone is found in the center of what type of bones

the flat bone

the spongy bone is in the epiphyses but, also lines the ________ _______ of the long bones

diaphysis section

the red bone marrow is found in what long bong section

epiphyses

nametophysis is also know as what

red marrow

what type of cartilage is found in the epiphyses section of a long bone

articular

the _______ plate is found in the ________ section of the long bone

epiphyseal/epiphyseal

the epiphyseal plate is also know as the

growth plate

the chemical make up of the bone matrix consists of ______ and ______ chemicals

organic/inorganic

the inorganic matrix contains what

salts

the matrix inorganic salts consist of

calcium and phosphate

the collagen matrix is found in what chemical make up of the bone matrix

organic

the organic matrix consists of

collagen

the main structure of the compact bone is the...

osteons

another name for osteons is ......

the harversian system

the harversian system contains......

lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, cancaliculi, harversian canal, and the volkmanns canal

what part of the compact bone structure is found in the lacuna

osteocytes

what is known as small canals in the harversian system of the compact bone

cacaliculi

what 2 canals contain blood vessels in the harversian system

the harversian and volkmanns canals

what is known as the "little lake" in the harversian system of the compact bone

lacunae

the concerntric, cylindrical shaped layers of the osteons

lamellae

lamella is found in the osteons or known as the __________ system

harversian

the cancellous bone is also know as the ________ bone

spongy

the structure of the cancellous bone is made up of....

trabeculae

trabeculae is found in the _______ bones of the cancellous bone

flate

the trabeculae lines the _________ cavities in the long bone of the cancellous bone

medullary

the _________ lines the medullary cavities is known as the cavity of _______

trabeculae/diaphysis

the cavity of the diaphysis lines the medullary cavities in the _______ __ ______ _______

trabeculae in flat bone

the trabeculae is located in the ________ structure of a long bone and is in the ________ of flat bones

epiphyses/center

the trabeculae tends to form along lines caused from _______

stress

3 major types of bone cells are...

osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts

osteocytes are known as bone _______ cells

structure

what bone cell is found in the compact bone in lacuna of osteons

osteocytes

osteocytes cause structure in the _____

bone

the mature bone cells are known as the _______ _____ _____

osteocytes bone cells

osteoblasts are know as the bone ________ cells

forming

the 2 bone cells that contain marrow and periosteam

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

the cells that form the bone

osteoblasts

osteoclast are known as the bone ___________ cells

reabsorbing

what bone cell is known as the bone reabsorbing cells

osteoclasts

what are the functions of the skeletal system

support, protection, movement, mineral storage, and hematipiesis

what is hematopies

the process of forming red blood cells

what is the scientific name for the formation of red blood cells

hematopieses

hematipieses forms what color blood cells

red

what 2 hormones affect the blood calcium levels and the activity of the osteoblasts and osteoclasts

PTH and calcitonin

what does PTH stand for

parathyroid hormone

when the blood calcium level is low in PTH the osteoclast activity is _________

increased

PTH causes the increase of ______ ________ when the blood level of calcium is too low

osteoclast activity

when the bone is broken down in the PTH, it releases ______ into the blood

calcium

what hormone increases the absorption in the intestines

PTH

what hormone stimulates the production of vitamin D

parathyroid

the parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of ________ __

vitamin D

the increase of absorption in the intestines leads to the ________ in the absorption of calcium in the PTH

increase

in PTH, when calcium level is high in the blood, the osteoclasts are ________

decreased

another name for the hormone calcitonin is __________

miacalcin

what hormone is made by the thyroid gland

calcitonin

the hormone calcitonin is made from the ________ gland

thyroid

when blood calcium levels are high in the calcitonin hormone _______ is increased and _______ activity is decreased

osteoblast/osteoclast

in the calcitonin hormone what activity is decreased

the osteoclast activity

what _______ ________ increases bone density

calcitonin hormone

the calcitonin hormone is used to treat what

postmenopausal osteoprosis

what does the hormone do to treat postmenopausal osteoprosis

the hormone causes the bone to thicken, increasing osteoblasts (bone growth)

the hormone ______ treats postmenopausal osteoprosis by increasing the ________

calcitonin/osteoblast

the structure of the long bone consists of ....

endochondral ossification, primary ossification center, secondary ossification cencert, and the epiphyseal plate

what is formed in the endochondral ossicication center of the long bone

cartilage

the primary ossification center is the entrance for the _______ _______

blood vessels

the entrance of the blood vessels in the primary ossification center is where the _______ _______ is developed

marrow cavity

the epiphyseal plate of the long bone structure is known as the ______ plate of the bone

growth

the epiphyseal plate consists of the......

cartilage, proliferation, hypertrophy, and the calicification

the first stage of the epiphyseal plate is where the _____ _____

cartilage forms

in the proliferation on the epiphyseal plate is when ______ occurs

mitosis

in the hypertrophy the epiphyseal plate _____

dies

in what part of the epiphyseal plate does the cartilage get replaces with bone

the calicification

what are the 3 stages of bone healing

hematoma, callus formation, and bone remodeling

the hematoma is the ________ stage of bone healing

first

in hematoma red blood cells form, creating ___ _____ ______

red bone marrow

the callus formation of bone healing is when ________ removes cells, while the _______ form bones

osteoclasts/chemicals

in what stage of bone healing does the hematoma go away

callus formation

what stage formates new osteons around the harversian blood vessels

bone remodeling

the bone is usually stronger than before after

the bone heals

in bone healing the osteoblast form

callus's

in bone healing the osteoclasts do the

remodeling

what are the 3 types of cartilage found in the skeletal system

hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage

what cartilage is "glass like"

hyaline

the hyaline cartilage is found on the ends of the ______

trachea

the ______ _______ provides free movement because of the smooth surface it creates at the end of bone

hyaline cartilage

in the hyaline cartilage, the ____________ are medium sized and appear in rows

chondrocytes

what cartilage is known as being flexible

the elastic cartilage

where is the elastic cartilage found

in the outer ear flap or between the vertabre

in the ________ cartilage, the tissue bends, yet can remain its shape

elastic

in the elastic cartilage, there are large _______ __ __________

lacuna with chondrocytes

in the matrix of the elastic cartilage contains ______ ______ ______ ______

dark stained elastin fibers

what cartilage is formed from fibers

fibrocartilage

fibrocartilage is found in the _________________ ______

intervertebal disks

the fibrocartilage ______ ______ with some give

absorbs shocks

in the matrix of the fibrocartilage contains ________ ________ and stain red

collagen fibers

fibrocartilage only has a very ____ ____ _____ amount of lacuna with chondrocytes

few and small

what vitamin and mineral combination is needed to maintain bones

calcium and vitamin d

what occurs in osteoprosis

the bone becomes thing

when the bone becomes thin, it puts the bone at rick for ________

fractures

in osteprosis the vertabre ________

shrinks

when the vertabre shrinks, it causes a ______ __ _____

decrease in height

what disease is most frequent in post menopausal women and can lead to hip fractures

osteprosis

what is NOT a primary function of the skeletal system

hormone production

the periosteum can be found covering....

the out side of bones

a fracture in the shaft (middle) of the bone would be a break in ____ _____ ____

the diaphysis part

when talking about the "shaft" of the bone, it is talking about the _________ ___ ___ ______

middle of the bone

the basic unit of the compact bone is called the

osteon (harversian system)

the osteocytes in a compact bone are found in the .......

lacuna in the osteon

the major purpose of the epiphyseal plate ......

to help the bone grow

the primary ossification center of a long bone is located ......

at the midpoint of the diaphysis

in bone growth, the medullary cavity is formed because of the activity of _________

the oesteoclasts

the type of cartilage that is found on the articular surfaces of bone is.....

the hyaline cartilage

the first step of healing after a fracture occurs is the.....

formation of a fracture hematoma

the matrix of a compact bone contains ______ and _______ ___

collagen/mineral salt

the process of hematopoiesis occurs where in the bone.......

in the red bone marrow

the organic matter found in the matrix of bones .....

includes collagen

the first stages (stages 1-3) of endochondral ossification occur when

in the fetus

when a fracture occurs at the "growth plate" it is called a.......

epiphyseal fracture

the function of these bone cells is forming bone

the osteoblasts bone cells

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