Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. It became known as a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
the formal withdrawal of a state from the union
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
Fugitive Slave Act
part of the Compromise of 1850; a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders. resisted by Nortrherners
personal liberty laws
Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
1853-1857, The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passes allowing people in the territories to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within the borders.
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
One of the two major American political parties. It emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats.
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the missouri Compromise
The fifth Chief Justice. him... and other justices appointed by Jackson favored the power of the states . In the Dred Scott decision (1857) he ruled that slaves and their descendants had no rights as citizens.
One of the most skillful politicians in Republican party. Lawyer. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. The Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted much attention. Lincoln's attacks on slavery made him nationally known. He felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election.
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
a loose union of independent states; name of government used by the southern states that seceded during the Civil War
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
a general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice. McClellan didn't succed because
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
Union navy commander who seizes New Orleans, Baton Rouge by ship, took over mississippi, and used ironclads and blockades
Robert E. Lee
A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
Kept Fight Going on too long.
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It only applied to states in rebellion (Confederate states). It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group. Were traders that would strike without warning.
drafting of civilians to serve in the army
This fort was known for Black soldiers who vengefully cried "remember Fort [insert answer here]" when they swung into battle and vowed to take no prisoners. This was a notorious case
Tax paid to the state, federal, and local governments based on income earned over the past year.
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
The most infamous prison in the south. There was no shelter. There was a huge population, and there were food shortages, overcrowding, and disease that killed about 100 men a day during the summer months.
a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (1820-1891)
Appomattox court house
Famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse, where the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee To Ulysses S. Grant took place on April 9, 1865
National Bank Act
It raised money for the Union in the American Civil War by enticing banks to buy federal bonds, and taxed state bonds out of existence. It helped the Union war effort economically.
the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
An international organization dedicated to the medical care of the sick or wounded in wars and natural disasters
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
the reorganization and rebuilding of the former Confederate states after the Civil War
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
a constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
legal process to formally charge the president with misconduct in office
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
system of farming where farmers rented their land from the landowner, and were allowed to grow what ever crop the prefered.
Klu Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
panic of 1873
Economic panic caused by overexpansion and overspeculation, causing the nation's largest bank to collapse (and bringing with it many smaller banks, business firms and the stock market)
Democrats called their return to power in the South
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Hayes' opponent in the 1876 presidential race, he was the Democratic nominee who had gained fame for putting Boss Tweed behind bars. He collected 184 of the necessary 185 electoral votes.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
ability to run state governments without the interference of the federal government