A greater than 20% increaser over healthy weight, based on BMI
Body mass index; a ration of height to weight associated with body fat
maladaptive eating habits
More responsive than normal weight individuals to external stimuli associated with food-taste, sight, smell, time of day, and food related words- and less responsive to internal hunger cues.
Friendly chasing and play-fighting
concrete operational stage
7 to 11 years; marks a major turning point in cognitive development. Conservation, spacial awareness, etc.
The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
The capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
The process of grouping things based on their similarities.
The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length of weight.
Requiring children to integrate three relations at once. Ex: From observing that Stick A is longer than Stick B and Stick B is longer than Stick C, children muster infer that A is longer than C.
Mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as a neighborhood or school.
Focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them, rather than centering on just one.
Repeating the information
Grouping related items together
Creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Dismissing the idea of general intelligence, Gardener proposes at least eight independent intelligences.
What are the eight independent intelligences of Gardener's theory of multiple intelligences?
1. linguistic- pick out patterns in language
2. logico-mathematical- patterns in numbers
3. musical- ability to produce rhythm/melody
4. spacial- ability to map things out; directions
5. bodily kinesthetic- ability to use body skillfully
6. naturalistic- ability to identify animals/plants
7. interpersonal-ability to detect and respond to moods
8. intra personal- self knowledge; limitations/strengths
If a test samples knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had an equal opportunity to learn, or if the testing situation impairs the performance of some groups but not others.
The fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype - can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance.
A learning disability that results in difficulty reading and writing.
What are some examples of learning difficulties found among children?
-mid mental retardation
-other disabilities such as dyslexia
industry vs. inferiority
Erikson's theory of psychological conflict of middle childhood; resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks.
Developing a sense of competence at useful skills; skills provide many opportunities. Positive but realistic self-concept, pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility, and cooperative participation with age mates.
Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well; family environment has not prepared children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children's feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses.
A person's beliefs/feelings/descriptions about himself at any given time.
Judgements of one's own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others.
Everyday explanations for the causes of our behavior.
Crediting their successes to ability- a characteristic they can improve through trying hard and can count on when facing new challenges. And they attribute failure to factors that can be changed or controlled, such as insufficient effort or a very difficult task.
Attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability. When they succeed, they conclude that external factors, such as luck, are responsible. Unlike their mastery-oriented counterparts, they believe that ability is fixed and cannot be improved by trying hard.
Encourages learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort.
primary sexual characteristics
Involve the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus and vagina in females; penis, scrotum, and testes in males).
secondary sexual characteristics
Visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity (breast development in females and the appearance of underarm and pubic hair in both sexes).
Start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world.
Adolescent's ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances.
Adolescents belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern.
Certain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated opinion on their own importance- a feeling that they are special and unique.
Defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to pursue in life.
identity vs. role confusion
If young people's earlier conflicts were resolved negatively or if society limits their choices to ones that do not match their abilities and desires, they may appear shallow, directionless, and unprepared for the challenges of adulthood.
Lack of direction and definition of self; restricted exploration in adolescence; unprepared for stages of adulthood.
Commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration.
Exploration without having reached commitment
Commitment in the absence of exploration.
An apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment.
Stories presenting a conflict between two moral values.
Morality is externally controlled. Children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences. Behaviors that result in punishment are viewed as bad, those that lead to rewards as good.
Individuals continue to regard conformity to social rules as important, but not for reasons of self-interest. They believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order.
post-conventional level or principled level
Individuals move beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws. They define mortality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies.
List stages of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
1. punishment and obedience orientation
2. instrumental purpose
3. good boy-good girl
4. social order maintaining
5. social contract
6. universal ethical principle
A sense of oneself as a separate, self-governing individual.
formal operational stage
Around age 11 young people develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking.
concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.