Martha Sharma Unit 3: Cultural Patterns and Processes AP Human Geography

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Acculturation

Process of adopting only certain customs that will be to their advantage.

Assimilation

Process of less dominant cultures losing their culture to a more dominant culture.

Cultural core/periphery pattern

The core-periphery idea that the core houses main economic power of regions and the outlying region or periphery houses lesser economic ties.

Cultural Ecology

The geographic study of human environmental relationships.

Cultural Identity

One's belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect.

Cultural Landscape

The visible imprint of human activity on the landsacape.

Culture

The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.

Formal/uniform Region

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.

Core Region

Center of economic activity.

Periphery Region

Outlying region of economic activity.

Functional/nodal Region

Region organized at a node or focal point.

Vernacular/perceptual Region

(self-awareness) A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.

Expansion Diffusion

The spread of one feature from one place to another in a snowballing process.

Hierarchical Diffusion

The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authotiry or power to other persons or places.

Contagious Diffusion

The rapid widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population.

Relocation Diffusion

The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.

Innovation Adoption

Study of how, why, and at what rate new technology spreads throughout a culture.

Maladaptive Diffusion

Diffusion of a process with negative side effects or what works well in one region may not in another.

Sequence Occupancy

Refers to such cultural succession and its lasting imprint proposed by Derwent Whittlesey.

Religion

The faithfulness to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual nature. This is important to Human Geography because man wars have fought over it.

Animism

Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and life. This is important to Human Geography because a lot of cultures around the world believe in Animism.

Buddhism

The third of the world's major universalizing religions. It has 365 million adherents, especially in China and Southeast Asia. It is important because a large percent of the earth's population follow Buddhism beliefs.

Cargo Cult Pilgrimage

Cargo Cult's believe western goods have been traded to them by ancestral spirits. It takes place in Malanesia and is important to Human Geography because it is a big religious movement by a large number of people.

Christianity

Is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings or Jesus the Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. It is important to Human Geography because it is the most popular religion in the world.

Confucianism

Developed by earlier Chinese man Confucius, it is a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought. This is important to Human Geography because it has affected Chinese Civilizations tremendously.

Ethnic Religion

A religion with a rather concentrated distribution whose principles are likesly to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location where its adherents are located. This is important to Human Geography because most religions start off as Ethnic Religion.

Exclave/Enclave

An enclave is a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country; an exclave is one which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. This is important to Human Geography because a lot of countries are within other countries.

Fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion. This is important to Human Geography because there are a lot of fundamentalists in all religions.

Geomancy

Is a method of predicion that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. The Arabic tradition consists of sketching sixteen random lines of dots in sand. This is important to Human Geography because most farmers use a form of Geomancy.

Hajj

The pilgrimage to Mecca for Islam followers. It is the fifth of the five pillars. It is important to Human Geography because just about all Islam followers try the pilgrimage there.

Hinduism

Created in India, it has approximately one billion followers. Unlike other religions, heaven is not always the ultimate goal in life. It is the third largest religion in the world behind Christianity and Islam. They talk about Karma (What goes around comes around). It is important to Human Geography because such a large number of people follow the religion and it is unlike any other one.

Interfaith Boundaries

The boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Christianity, Muslim, and Buddhism. This is not the same as Intrafaith boundaries which describes the boundaries within a major religion. This is important to Human Geography because it separates different groups of people for different reasons.

Islam

It means the submission to the will of god. It is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a key religious figure. It is the second largest religion in the world. This is important to Human Geography because it has impacted the world greatly, especially boundaries.

Jainism

Religion and philosphy originating in ancient India. It stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life. It affects Human Geography because a lot of people believe in it in India.

Judaism

It is the religion of ancient Hebrews, said to be one of the first monotheistic faiths. This is important to Human Geography because many other religions have been based off of it.

Landscapes of the dead

The certain areas where people have commonly been buried. This is important to Human Geography because it has always been important where people are buried.

Monotheism/Polytheism

Monotheism is the belief in one god and polytheism is the belief in many gods. This affects Human Geography because many religions spread throughout the world fall under these two categories.

Mormonism

A term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is important because a lot of peope around the world practice Mormonism.

Muslim Pilgrimage

If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca). They usually make the trip around Ramadan. This pilgrimage is also referred to as Hajj. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.

Muslim Population

It is the religion of 1.3 billion people in the world. It is the predominant relgion of the Middle East from North Africa to Central Asia. Half of the world's Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. It is important becuse Islam is one of the most popular religons practiced around the world.

Proselytic Religion

Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practive this: they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. This is important to Human Geography because there are three of the biggest reglions in the world. They are are practiced all over the world.

Reincarnation

The idea of reincarnation is that after this life, you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or human life. So, basically, what you do in this life will affect what your next life is like. This is commonly practiced by the Buddhists and the Hindus. This is important to Human Geography because these two religions are very important in the world.

Religion (groups, places)

One group is universalizing religions. These are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. All of these have different branches. There are also ethnic religions, such as Hindiuism, Daoism, and Confucianism. These religions are spread out throughout the world. This affects Human Geography because all regions throughout the world have a general religion.

Religious architectural styles

These are the styles of architecture created by the religions. For example, Christians have always made temples, and Buddhists have always made a lot of religious statues. This is important to Human Geography because these styles affected most of the future styles for other civilizations.

Religious Conflict

This is the conflicts between religions. One of these is Israel-Palestine. This consists of Roman Takeovers, Muslim conquests, and the crusades. This affects Human Geography because there has been a lot of bloodshed over religious conflict.

Religious Culture Hearth

This is where most religions are born. Most major religons have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few have come from India, too. This is important to Human Geography beacuse where religions are created, civilizations are, too.

Religious Toponym

This refers to the origin and meaning of the names of religions. This is important to Human Geography because many names mean significant things, including beliefs or cultures.

Sacred Space

Sacred space is the place where religious figures and congregations meet to perform religious ceremonies. This is important to Human Geography because a lot of history has taken place at sacred spaces.

Secularism

This is the belief that humans should be based on facts and not religious beliefs. This is important to Human Geography because this has caused conflicts in a lot of different places, including politics.

Shamanism

This is the range of traditional beliefs and practices that claim the ability to cure, heal, and cause pain to people. This is important to Human Geography because it is thought as good and bad.

Sharia law

It is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles. This is important to Human Geography because it affects many people around Muslims around the world.

Shintoism

Said to be the way of god. It is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. It involves the worhsip of kami (a god). Not very significant anymore and lost importance to today. This is important to Human Geography because before WWII it was very popular and affected a lot of people in Japan.

Sikhism

Is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India. The principal belief in Sikhism is faith in Vahiguru. Emphasizes faith in god. This is important to Human geography because it is another minor religion in India that affects a lof ot people.

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