Greek Culture: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

73 terms by megann1226 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Anaxagoras (pre-Socratic)

materialist, 1st philosopher to bring philosophy from Ionia to Athens.
-seeds
-"everything has a share of everything"
-matter = indestructible
-change = recombination
-Nous (mind) = ordering force
-sharp distinction between soul and body

Anaximander (Pre-Socratic)

2nd master of Milesean school.
- nature ruled by laws
-physics: apeiron(the indefinite) = the source of all things
-evolution and natural selection

Anaximenes (pre-Socratic)

air = primary substance of which all other things are made. (material monism, tendency to identify one specific underlying reality made up of a material thing).
-Condensation:air condenses & becomes visible, and as the condensed air cools he supposed that it went on to form earth.
-rarefaction: water evaporates into air which ignites and produces flame when further rarefied.

Anytus

Socrates says Anytus joined the prosecution because he was "vexed on behalf of the craftsmen and politicians"

apeiron

according to Anaximander: in physics, "The indefinite", the source of all things, led to new level of conceptual abstraction

Argument from Affinity

Since the soul exists and is invisible: has affinity with ideas and therefore is-> immortal, unchanging, and indissoluble. A Soul not addicted to material things -> commune with gods. So constantly purify soul and follow reason only. No need to fear death.

Argument from opposites

everything comes to be from its opposite (Ex.living things come from dead things->implication of perpetual circle of life and death in the world) the souls of the dead must exist somewhere In a place where they wait to be reborn.

Aristotle

pupil of Plato, father worked for Phillip of Macedons son Amyntas. 347, goes to Assos invited by Hermias (tyrant) joins colony of philosophers. Married H's niece Pythias.Tutor to Alex the great, created Lyceum (school) 1st library/museum of natural history. friendship w/antipater. brought up on charges of impiety (anti-macedonian political ploy), left athens, died

Cebes

pythagorean, objects to Socrate's argument. "What you have proved so far is that the soul is long lived, long lived is not the same as immortal. Have to prove the soul has eternal indestructibility, not pre-existence required (might perish at death)"

cosmology

...

Crito

disciple of Socrates, comes to him in his cell wants him to escape. Reasons: 1) endangering good reputation of friends by not escaping. 2) enjoy life in a good place. 3)joining his enemies part by not trying to save his own life 4)avoiding obligations to his children 5)cowardice

deduction/ deductive reasoning

general to particular

Democritus

- "father of modern science"
- student of Leucippus, same ideas

dialectic

talking it out, reasoned justification of your own definition

dicastery

ppls. court. all male citizens >30 = eligible. volunteer, chosen by lot. paid, many old/poor become jurors. voting = secret (pebbles, disks), voted on penalty also, no binding precedent, no appeals, get punishment same day

Echecrates

asks for account of Socrates last minutes in Phaedo

Eleatic School

founded by->Parmenides
logical standards of clarity and necessity to be the criteria of truth. opposite of materialists(physicalists);
-by thought alone (not senses) that we can arrive at the knowledge of being; there can be no creation

elenchus

testing soundness of someone else's definition, questioning

Empedocles (pre-Socratic)

- 4 elements
- matter eternal, uncreated, indestructible
-reconciliation of opposites
-attraction and repulsion

Euthyphro

earliest of Plato's dialogues, Socrates on way to court, meets E who is prosecuting father for murder (negligent homicide of slave who had killed other slave). S says E must be expert in religion. Virtue dialogue: What is piety/holiness

gnothi seauton

know thyself (part of socratic method)

graphe paranomon

replacement for ostracism. it provided a weapon with which rival Athenian politicians could damage or eliminate each other

Heraclitus (pre-Socratic)

- fire:
-permanence elusive
- change = truth
-panta rhei
-conflict of opposites
-relativity

idealism

no reliance on sense perception
denial of change
search for non-material truth

induction / inductive reasoning

individual instances/ particulars -> general rule

klepsydra

time allocation device. water clock, measures time. each person (prosecutor/defendant) get same amount of time to talk.

Leucippus (pre-socratic)

(and democritus)
-atomic theory of the cosmos: atoms, infinite number, different sizes & shapes, invisible
-natural law and chance

Lycon

prosecutor in the trial of Socrates, vexed on behalf of the rhetoricians

materialism

religio-mythical explanation abandoned, cosmology, sense perceptions, change, principle of unity of matter (the only thing that exists is matter); philosophy and science should operate according to the physical world, and that's all that exists

mean/ golden mean

Aristotle, ethical virtue. Can always have too little or too much of something. Ex. how one should behave in battle (courage can differ for each individual)

Meletus

one of three prosecutors of Socrates, knows nothing about what is best for the young; vexed on behalf of the poets

Milesian school

Thales: father of philosophy, water. Anamimander

ostracism

getting anyone who got too powerful politically out of power. Began to be disused

panta rhei

"everything flows" (Heraclitus)

Parmenides

poem -> on nature ; founded eleatic school
-Opinion: ones senses/perception lead to illusive and false conceptions/opinions
-TRUTH: truth in Being, not Becoming; Being = abstract thought, perceived by Reason (change impossible)

paripatetic

created by Aristotle, peripatos= covered walkway, walked around lecturing

Phaedo

Socrates argues that the soul is immortal:
1.) [a] argument from analogy of opposites [b] argument from recollection. 2.) Argument from Affinity. refutes claims of the pythagoreans. 3.) theory of ideas, myth of the afterlife [spherical universe, protreptic -> to convince ppl. to follow the way of the philosopher]

physis v. nomos

distinction btwn nature (physis) and custom or convention (nomos)
1. man= natural creature subject to certain laws of nature which he cannot help but obey
~(V)~
2. man lives in a society, the rules and structure of which have no roots in nature and are based only on custom

Plato

(428-348), wealthy, aristocratic family, active in political life, disciple of Socrates, disillusioned with democracy and oligarchy, founded Academy in 388, Sicilian experiments, died in Athens

Protagoras

Sophist, "Man is the measure of all things..." :
controversial, contrasting to other philosophical doctrines that claimed the universe was based on something objective, outside the human influence.

Pythagoras

-number abstractions and mysticism; set up his own religious sect
-distrust of senses and concrete
-truthharmony, order, proper proportion through mathematics
-body inferior to soul: ascetic purity of body and control through reason
- reincarnation and transmigration of souls

Simmias

Pythagorean, objects to Socrates argument for argument from affinity, Attunement: Can tune the Lyre, and it may with time go out of tune, or could get broken and at that point the attunement perishes along with the lyre. If soul a harmony of parts of body, sould may perish before the body

Socrates

died at 70, (son of Sonphranistis and phaenarete), sculptor, military service (physical endurance, crazy/mystic). Taught (not for $), father of ethics,

Sophists

-paid teachers: thinking, speaking, practical instruction; "how to make the weaker argument the stronger";
-man as individual and social being
-physis v. nomos
-empirico-inductive method
-knowledge a means to control of life

syllogism

formal logic. major premises, minor premises, conclusion (absolutely must follow, must be true). Determine truth or falsity in an argument.

Thales

founder of Milesian school

The thirty

Sparta wins peloponnesian war, interfere in states. Athens -> 30 oligarchs chosen by Sparta, reformed govt., got rid of Democrats, Athenians rebel, Sparta establishes governor (harmost), Democrats rebel again Sparta restores democracy and The 30 are executed

Theory of Ideas

came out of the academy, keystone of Plato's philosophy, the things we see around us are just copies of a "bluprint"/ idea that exists on some other plane

Theory of recollection (Phaedo)

Learning is really recollecting what we already know, what we recollect now we must have learned before (Ex. child knows a stick is longer but knows nothing about measurements) Socrates uses this to argue the immortality of the soul->
"If the soul existed before birth and if, when it proceeds toward the life and is born, it must be born from the dead, then it must also exist after death"

Xanthippe

wife of Socrates, probably higher class than him, had his children

Xenohanes

eleatic school
-oneness; the One = God
-antipolytheistic and anti-anthropomorphic (used poetry criticized and satirized many ideas), wrote for future generations

Zeno

Eleatic School: paradoxes disproving plurality and motion; inventor of dialectic

Philosophy of Socrates

- happiness = perfection of soul= goal of life
- virtue not enforced by convention or conduct (happiness its own reward), not derived from sensory perception, self directed morality based on reason
- Virtue = knowledge (wrongs-> unintentional product of ignorance);

Socrates V. Sophists

no bribes, virtue = objective standards of virtuous conduct. (deduction not induction)

Socratic Method

questions and answers, realizaiton of ignorance, critical self examination,

Sicilian Experiments

friends w/Tyrants in Sicily, find perfect means of Govt, = pet project, best of all rulers = philosopher king, laboratory for this idea, failures: young men gave into dark side when faced with absolute power

Plato's Dialogues

25, argumentative conversation, dramatic (almost like a play), habit of illustrating philosophical stuff by inventing/inserting his own mythology (Ex. Myth of Er)

Platonism

academic philosophy. theory of ideas
-body=vessel for holding soul, only be concerned about soul & making it better->reason.
-trying to form ideal state (individual subordinate to state), govt = intellectual elite, system of compulsory education, emancipation of women, abolition of private property, edu. of young controlled by censorship,

Euthyphro

Def. 1: holiness is what i am doing now. Objeciton: need definition.
- Def 2: holiness is what is agreeable to the gods
- elenchus 2: diff gods, diff ideas of agreeable
- Def 3: holiness is what all gods approve of
-E 3: is is approved b/c its holy or visa versa?
(interlude->Socrates like Daedalus. Socrates hint: holiness a part of justice)
- Def 4: holiness is part of justice concerned w/looking after gods
- E 4: need def of "looking after" ->nope back to def 2-3 (conclusion: E leaves, 2 complicated & too much time)

Euthyphro: notes

-intro generally long, brings forward expert (possessor of virtue at issue), excuse for examining explanation of virtue, interlocutor gives examples illustrating virtue in self, explanation of interlocutor doesnt cover all instances
- tells you what you dont know, makes you as questions to yourself

APOLOGY

Socrates' defense, Refutation of popular opinions of Socrates, testing the meaning of Apollo's oracle.
- refutation of formal charges
- digression on his life
-Peroration (doesnt make appeal to pity)
-Verdict: guilty
-Penalty proposal (Socrates says reward me, other option = death); Death penalty chosen
- post -sentence address (addresses those who condemned and those who acquitted)

Apology: Refutation->corruption of the youth

examination of Meletus->young ppl should be exposed to best possible influence (those who know the laws of Athens), analogy of horse trainers [straw man] few people can train young correctly, those who attempt to but cant harm them. Socrates says Meletus says few= those who cant.

Apology: Refutation-> Q of intentional harm

good community V. bad community. bad ppl. harm citizens, good ppl. = good effect. no one prefers to be harmed, if he harmed young he would harm himself. (either i am a bad influence or i have done something unintentionally)

Apology: Refutation ->Atheism

no one believes in supernatural matters and not in supernatural beings
- Daimones = supernatural beings, divine spirits like a guardian angel

Digression on Socrates' Life

- once one takes a stand, one must face the dangers, death before dishonor (death not to be feared). Obey superior->superior = god; he will never stop philosophizing, simile: gadfy to racehorse, socrates personal sacrifices for city,

Socrates response to Crito

1)only takes advice from experts, not friends, not from opinion of many 2)importance of soul over body [soul ruined by unjust actions] 3) is it just to escape? always be just, just to fulfill agreements 4)stigma of breaking law = mockery of views 5) children will not benefit 6)consequences in afterlife

Crito: Laws of Athens

Socrates creates these abstract laws in lieu of an elenchus ,has to be able to argue with something not personal (law must be supreme). Justice requires staying and facing penalty. Socrates has agreed to stay in Athens and obey laws

Crito: things to note

reltiong between individual and state here different from other references (sacrifice of individuals moral independence for conventional law). Problems with this dialogue, questions of authorship

Aristotle

chief founder of comparative & systematic zoology. founder of scientific botany, prolific writer: esoteric/acroastic notes: his lecture notes, shorthand designed for students

Aristoleanism (1)

opposed theory of ideas: believed universe constantly moving and changing, ideas couldn't explain variety or motion
-observation through senses (reason = sense), didn't trust mathematics (common sense, practical)
- deduction rather than induction
-Nous (mind) distinguishes man from all other creatures (hierarchy, diff types of soul)
- happiness = virtue (doing what a creature does best)
-man a political/social animal

Aristotle compared to Plato

-cooler reason
- stronger sense of reality
- less severe criticism
more inclined to observe then to guide

Aristotle and government

elitist. right/good constitutions = monarchy, aristocray, polity. wrong/bad constitutions = democracy oligarchy, tyranny
- wants education under complete control of state

Aristoleanism (2)

- justifies slavery (some ppl. by nature are rulers)
- antipathy towards trade
- god is the mind that thinks of itself
unmoved mover, no intervention or interest in details of world or individuals

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set