Chapter 6 World History

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Muhammad

born in Mecca, orphaned at 5, married Khadija

Muhammad

worried due to disparities between rich and poor so began mediating

Yathrib

Islam first flourished here; the people accepter Muhammad as leader and king

Yathrib

Muhammad established laws, settled disputes here in turn for a place to stay for him and his followers

Medina

another name for Yathrib

hijrah

the event that marks year one on Islamic calendar when Muhammad and his followers fled

622 CE

year one on the Islamic calendar

Shar´ia

set of law codes to regulate daily life; developed after Muhammad's death; based upon interpretation

Quran

Islam's holy book with Muhammad's revelation from Allah; contains laws

Belief

PILLAR only one god Allah

Prayer

PILLAR 5 times a day toward Mecca

Charity

PILLAR give to the poor; giving of alms

Fasting

PILLAR during Ramadan refrain from food and drink from dawn till dusk

Pilgrimage

PILLAR must go to Mecca once in a lifetime

rules for Muslims

forbidden to eat pork, drink alcohol, engage in immoral behavior, marriage central to family

Allah

who created all and offers salvation and afterlife?

Muhammad

who was the prophet but not divine?

succession

what was unsettled which led to the Islamic split or schism?

Umayyad

General Mu´Awiyah became Caliph of this dynasty; caliph was heredity

Umayyad

what dynasty converted Berbers and Muslims and attacked Constantinople but Byzantine defeated them?

Damascus

what was the capital of Umayyad?

Umayyad

what dynasty excluded and treated non-Arabs poorly?

Abbasids

the Umayyads were defeated and replaced by who?

Baghdad

what was the capital of Abbasid?

Abbasid

the rulers of this dynasty claimed to be descendants of Muhammad's uncle

Abbasid

made Islam open to all; heterogeneous culture

Southwest Asia

the crusades where led to mistrust between Christians and Muslims?

Saladin

Muslim _______ took Jerusalem in the 3rd Crusade

Saladin

compromised with Richard the Lion-Hearted and granted Christian's access to Holy Places

vizier

Council with prime minister advised Caliph in the Abbasid Dynasty. What was the prime minister called?

Jihad

Bakr claimed "struggle in the way of God"

Jihad

what spread Islamic Empire to encompass Egypt, Syria, and the Persian Empire?

South, East Africa, India, China, Egypt, Iraq

areas of the world with which Arabs traded

caravan routes

ship and camel caravans traveled Morocco in west to countries beyond Caspian Sea

Equality

what did the Quran indicate for treatment of women?

Sharia

what law dictated different roles for men and women?

Burqa

what was the full dress for women?

Arab

what was the burqa custom of?

Cordoba

in Islamic Spain, biggest city behind Constantinople

Christianity and Islam

accuse Judaism of stubbornly refusing to accept later revelations that modify and update its original truths

Judaism and Islam

accuse Christians of a kind of idolatry in claiming that God begat a son who was actually a form of God and who walked the earth in human form

Judaism and Christianity

argue that God did not give a special, final revelation to Muhammad

government

competition over what led to opposition in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism?

sheikh

ruler of each tribe; chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders

Quran

the holy book of the religion Islam; contains ethical guidelines and laws by which the followers of Allah are to live

Islam

"preach through submission to the will of Allah;" has only one God, Allah and Muhammad is God's prophet

Hijrah

the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah occurring in 622

Hajj

all Muslims are encouraged to make a pilgrimage to Makkah if possible

shari'ah

the code that provides believed with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives; based on scholars' interpretations of the Quran and the example set by Muhammad in his life

caliph

successor to Muhammad

jihad

fair, defensive war permitted by the Quran

Shiite

accept only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam

Sunni

accept the Umayyads as rulers

vizier

a council headed by a prime minister who advised the caliph

sultan

the Turkish leader who captured Baghdad and took command of the empire; "holder of power"

mosque

Muslim houses of worship

dowry

a gift of money or property

Abbasids

made Baghdad, the Abbasid capital known as the City of Peace, the greatest city in the empire and one of the greatest cities in the world while they had power

Fatimids

after their rise in Egypt, the focus of trade shifted to Cairo

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