born in Mecca, orphaned at 5, married Khadija
worried due to disparities between rich and poor so began mediating
Islam first flourished here; the people accepter Muhammad as leader and king
Muhammad established laws, settled disputes here in turn for a place to stay for him and his followers
another name for Yathrib
the event that marks year one on Islamic calendar when Muhammad and his followers fled
year one on the Islamic calendar
set of law codes to regulate daily life; developed after Muhammad's death; based upon interpretation
Islam's holy book with Muhammad's revelation from Allah; contains laws
PILLAR only one god Allah
PILLAR 5 times a day toward Mecca
PILLAR give to the poor; giving of alms
PILLAR during Ramadan refrain from food and drink from dawn till dusk
PILLAR must go to Mecca once in a lifetime
rules for Muslims
forbidden to eat pork, drink alcohol, engage in immoral behavior, marriage central to family
who created all and offers salvation and afterlife?
who was the prophet but not divine?
what was unsettled which led to the Islamic split or schism?
General Mu´Awiyah became Caliph of this dynasty; caliph was heredity
what dynasty converted Berbers and Muslims and attacked Constantinople but Byzantine defeated them?
what was the capital of Umayyad?
what dynasty excluded and treated non-Arabs poorly?
the Umayyads were defeated and replaced by who?
what was the capital of Abbasid?
the rulers of this dynasty claimed to be descendants of Muhammad's uncle
made Islam open to all; heterogeneous culture
the crusades where led to mistrust between Christians and Muslims?
Muslim _______ took Jerusalem in the 3rd Crusade
compromised with Richard the Lion-Hearted and granted Christian's access to Holy Places
Council with prime minister advised Caliph in the Abbasid Dynasty. What was the prime minister called?
Bakr claimed "struggle in the way of God"
what spread Islamic Empire to encompass Egypt, Syria, and the Persian Empire?
South, East Africa, India, China, Egypt, Iraq
areas of the world with which Arabs traded
ship and camel caravans traveled Morocco in west to countries beyond Caspian Sea
what did the Quran indicate for treatment of women?
what law dictated different roles for men and women?
what was the full dress for women?
what was the burqa custom of?
in Islamic Spain, biggest city behind Constantinople
Christianity and Islam
accuse Judaism of stubbornly refusing to accept later revelations that modify and update its original truths
Judaism and Islam
accuse Christians of a kind of idolatry in claiming that God begat a son who was actually a form of God and who walked the earth in human form
Judaism and Christianity
argue that God did not give a special, final revelation to Muhammad
competition over what led to opposition in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism?
ruler of each tribe; chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders
the holy book of the religion Islam; contains ethical guidelines and laws by which the followers of Allah are to live
"preach through submission to the will of Allah;" has only one God, Allah and Muhammad is God's prophet
the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah occurring in 622
all Muslims are encouraged to make a pilgrimage to Makkah if possible
the code that provides believed with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives; based on scholars' interpretations of the Quran and the example set by Muhammad in his life
successor to Muhammad
fair, defensive war permitted by the Quran
accept only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam
accept the Umayyads as rulers
a council headed by a prime minister who advised the caliph
the Turkish leader who captured Baghdad and took command of the empire; "holder of power"
Muslim houses of worship
a gift of money or property
made Baghdad, the Abbasid capital known as the City of Peace, the greatest city in the empire and one of the greatest cities in the world while they had power
after their rise in Egypt, the focus of trade shifted to Cairo