Chapter 17 Eyes and Ears and Chapter 18 Endocrine System

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Chapter 17

Chapter 18

Question Answer
1) Fiberous layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eye and is continuous with the white of th eyes Cornea
2) Yellowish region in the retina; contains the fovea centralis Macula lutea
3) What eye structure is transparent, biconvex, and focuses light on the retina? Lens
4) Place where optic nerve fibers cross in the brain Optic chiasma
5) Adjustment of the lens by the ciliary body Accommodation (normal adjustment of the eye to focus)
6) Photosensitive receptor cells of the retina; make the perception of color possible Rods
7) The combining for for cornea is? Kerat/o
8) The combining form for lens is? Phak/o
9) The meaning of palpebr/o is? eyelid (also blephar/o)
10) An eye inflammation commonly calld "pinkeye is" Conjunctivitis
11) Impairment of vision due to old age Presbyopia
Myopia (is which form of sightedness?) Nearsightedness
13) Defective curvature of the eye Astigmatism
14) Glaucoma is primarily diagnosed by Tonometry
15) A blind spot; area of depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision Scotoma (darkness)
16) Macular degeneration produces loss of central vision
17) Small hard mass on the eyelid; formed from a sebaceious gland enlargement: Chalazion
18) Snail shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear is the cochlea
19) Channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx Eustachian tube
20) Myring/o means tympanic membrane (myears are myringing!)
21) Bacterial infection of the middle ear Suppurative otitis media
22) Tinnitus ringing in the ears
23) Visual examination of the ear Otoscopy
24) nerve deafness occurring with aging presbycusis
25) Fungal infection of the ear otomycosis (myc/o = fungus)
26) Contains sensitive cells (rods and cones) that transmit light energy to nervous impulses RETINA
27) Contains muscles that control the shape of the lens and secrete aqueous humor CILIARY BODY
28) Transparent body behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor; refracts light rays to bring them into focus on the retina LENS
29) Jelly-like material behind the lens; helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball VITREOUS HUMOR
30) Dark center of the eye through which light rays enter PUPIL
31) Vascular layer of the eyeball that is continuous with the iris CHOROID
32) Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior of the eyeball CONJUNCTIVA
33) Fibrous layer of clear tissues that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball CORNEA
34) Colored portion of the eye; surrounds the pupil IRIS
35) Tough, white outer coat of the eyeball SCLERA
36) inflammation of the vascular layer of the eye uveitis
37) Condition of dry eyes xerophthalmia
38) Outward deviation of the eye exotropia (exo - outward)
39) Inward deviation of the eye esotropia (eso - inward)
40) Absence of the lens of the eye aphakia
41) absence of vision in half of the visual field hemianopsia (hemi = half)
42) abnormal deviations of the eye strabismus
43) Increased intraocular pressure results in retinal and optic nerve damage Glaucoma
44) Localized purulent infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid hordeolum (stye)
45) Clouding of the lens causes decreased vision cataract
46) Retinal micoaneurysms, hemorrhages occur secondary to an endorcrine condition diabetic retinopathy
47) Deterioration of the macula lutea of the retina macular degeneration

Question Answer
35) Develops and maintains female sex characteristics Estradiol
34) Helps transport glucose to cells and decreases blood sugar Insulin
33) Increases blood sugar Cortisol
32) Stimulates secretion of hormons from adrenal cortex ACTH
31) Increases reabsorption of sodium by kidney tubules aldosterone
30) Raises blood clacium parathyroid hormone
29) increases metabolism in body cells thyroxine
28) stimulates water reabsorption by kidney tubules; decreases urine ADH
27) Promotes growth and maintainence of male sex characteristics testosterone
26) Sympathomimetic; elevates heart rate, blood pressure epinephrine
25) Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization with a scanner to detect tumors or nodules Thyroid Scan (which is a description of a thyroid scan)
24) Defective cartliage formation that affects bone growth Achondroplasia (which is a description of achondroplasia)
23) secondary complications of diabetes mellitus neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy are associated with diabetes mellitus
22) Characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin production) Little or no insulin is produced
21) Natr/o is the combining form of what substance? SODIUM
20) Tetany is? constant muscle contraction
19) Exophthalmos is a symptom of which endocrine disorder? Graves Disease
18) Enlargement of the thyroid gland Goiter
17) Thyrotoxicosis; hyper secretion of the thyroid gland Graves Disease
16) Post-puberty hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland Acromegaly (post puberty)
15) Advanced hypothroidism in adulthood Myxedema
14) A group of symptoms produced by excess of cortisol from the adrenal cortex Cushing Syndrome
13) Insulin deficiency or resistance leads to hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis Diabetes Mellitus
12) Kali/ is the combining form for which substance? Potassium (K)
11) Excessive deelopment of mammary tissue in a male Gynecomastia
10) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Gonadotropins (description of)
9) hormone secreted by the ovary and adrenal cortex? Estrogen
8) Element that is present in thyroxine IODINE
7) An example of an electrolyte Sodium (also Potassium and Chloride)
6) which hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete hormones? Cortisone
5) Which hormone regulates calcium in the blood and bones? Parathyroid hormone
4) Which hormone is secreted by the pancreas? INSULIN
3) Which gland secretes cortisol? Adrenal cortex
2) Another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Adenohypophysis
1) which gland secretes thyroxine? Thyroid gland

Question Answer
accommodation normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near
anterior chamber area behind hte cornea and in front of the lens and iris. it contains aqueous humor.
aqueous humor fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber
biconvex having two sides that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly, like part of a sphere
choroid middle, vascular layer of the eye, between the retina and the sclera
ciliary body structure on each side of the lens that connects the choroid and iris. It contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens, and it secretes aqueous humor.
cone photoreceptor cell in the retina that transforms light energy into a nerve impulse. responsible for color and central vision
conjunctiva delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball
cornea fibrous trnsparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball
fovea centralis tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision
fundus of the eye posterior, inner part of the eye
iris colored pigmented membrane surrounding the pupil of the eye
lens transparent, biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye. it bends (refracts) light rays to bring them into focus on the retina
macula yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains fovea centralis, which is the area of clearest vision
optic chiasm point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain
optic disc region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. it is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light
optic nerve cranial nerve carrying impulses from the retina to the brain (cerebral cortex)
pupil dark opening of the eye, surrounded by the iris, through which light rays pass
refraction bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina
retina light-sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods & cones)
rod photoreceptor cell of the retina essential for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision
sclera tough, white outer coat of the eyeball
thalamus relay center of the brain. optic nerve fibers pass through here on their way to the cerebral cortex
vitreous humor soft, jelly-like material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball
astigmatism defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
hyperopia (hypermetropia) farsightedness
myopia nearsightedness
presbyopia impairment of vision as a result of old age
cataract clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision
chalazion small, hard, cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland along the margin of the eyelid
diabetic retinopathy retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization
glaucoma increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision
hordeolum (stye) localized, purulent, inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
macular degeneration progessive damage to the macula of the retina
nystagmus repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes
retinal detachment two layers of the retina separate from each other
strabismus abnormal deviation of the eye
esotropia one eye turns inward; cross-eyed
exotropia one eye turns outward; wall-eyed
hypertropia upward deviation of one eye
hypotropia downward deviation of one eye
amblyopia partial loss of vision or lazy eye
diplopia double vision
auditory canal channel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
auditory meatus auditory canal
auditory nerve fibers carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex), these fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
auditory tube channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachain tube
auricle flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna
cerumen waxy substance secreted by the external ear; also called ear wax
cochlea snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells
endolymph fluid within the labyrinth of the inner ear
eustachian tube auditory tube
incus second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; means anvil
labyrinth maze-like series of canals of the inner ear
malleus first ossicle of the middle ear; means hammer
organ of Corti sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear
ossicle small bone of the ear
oval window membrane between the middle ear and the inner ear
perilymph fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
pinna auricle; flap of the ear
semicircular canals passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium
stapes third ossicle of the middle ear. means stirrup
tympanic membrane membrane between the outer and middle ear; also called the eardrum
vestibule central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting thhe semicircular canals and the cochlea. contains two structures, the saccule and utricle, that help maintain equilibrium
acoustic neuroma benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve in the brain
cholesteatoma collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within thhe middle ear
deafness loss of the ability to hear
Meniere disease disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph pressure within the cochlea and semicircular canals
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
suppurative otitis media invasion of bacteria in the middle ear, pus formation occurs
serous otitis media noninfectious inflammation with accumulation of serous fluid
otosclerosis hardening of the bony tissue of the middle ear
tinnitus sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears
vertigo sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects
aphakia absence of the lens of the eye

Question Answer
secretes thyroxine This is a function of the thyroid gland
adenohypophysis another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary "pitushiary (lol)" gland
adrenal cortex secretes cortisol
insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas
parathyroid hormone hormone that regulates calcium in the blood and bones
ACTH hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete hormones
sodium this is an example of an electrolyte
iodine Is an element that is present in thyroxine
estrogen is a hormone secreted by the ovary and adrenal cortex
gonadotropins secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
gynecomastia term for excessive development of mammary tissue in a male
kal/i combining form for potassium
diabetes mellitus insulin deficiency or resistance leads to hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis
Cushing syndrome group of symptoms produced by excess of cortisol from the adrenal cortex
myxedema (myx/o-mucus, edema-puffy) advanced hypothyroidism (underactivity of thyroid gland)in adulthood
acromegaly post-puberty hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
Graves disease thyrotoxicosis; hypersecretion of the thyroid gland
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
exophthalmos symptom of the endocrine disorder Graves disease
tetany constant muscle contraction
natr/o combining form for the substance sodium
little or no insulin produced characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus
secondary complications of diabetes mellitus Is associated with neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy
achondroplasia defective cartilage formation that affects bone growth
thyroid scan administration of radioactive compound and visualization with a scanner to detect tumors or nodules
ACTH stimulates secretion of hormones from adrenal cortex
cortisol increases blood sugar
insulin helps transport glucose to cells and decreases blood sugar
thyroxine increases metabolism in body cells
ADH stimulates water reabsorption by kidney tubules; decreases urine
epinephrine sympathomimetic; elevates heart rate, blood pressure
parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium
aldosterone increases reabsorption of sodium by kidney tubules
estradiol develops and maintains female sex characteristics
testosterone promotes growth and maintainence of male sex characteristics

Question Answer
cornea fibrous layers of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eye and is continuous with the white of the eye
macula lutea yellowish region in the retina;contains the fovea centralis
lens eye structure is transparent, biconvex, and focuses light on the retina
optic chiasma where optic nerve fibers cross in the brain
accomodation adjustment of the lens by the ciliary body
cones photosensitive receptor cells of the retina; make the perception of color possible
kerat/o combining form for cornea
cycl/o combining form for the ciliary body
eyelid combining form: palpebr/o
conjunctivitis an eye inflammation commonly called "pinkeye"
presbyopia impairment of vision due to old age
myopia nearsightedness
astigmatism defective curvature of the cornea or lens
tonometry glaucoma is primarily diagosed with this procedure
scotoma a blind spot; area of depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision
macular degeneration produces loss of central vision
chalazion small hard mass on the eyelid; formed from a sebaceous gland enlargement
cochlea snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear
eustachian tube channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx
myring/o combining form for tympanic membrane
suppurative otitis media bacterial infection of the middle ear
tinnitus ringing sound in ears
otoscopy visual examination of the ear
presbycusis nerve deafnes occuring with aging
otomycosis fungal infection of the ear
choroid vascualr layer of the eyeball that is continuous with the iris
conjunctiva delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball
iris colored portion of the eye; surrounds the pupil
pupil dark center of the eye through which light rays enter
sclera tough white outer coat of the eyeball
ciliary body contains muscles that control the shape of the lens and secrete aqueous humor
lens transparent body behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor; refracts light rays to bring them into focus on the retina
retina contains sensitive cells (rods & cones) that transmit light energy to nervous impulses
vitreous humor jelly-like material behind the lens; helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball
aphakia absence of the lens of the eye
esotropia inward deviation of the eye
hemianopsia absence of vision in half of the visual field
uveitis inflammation of the vascualr layer of the eye
exotropia outward deviation of the eye
xerophthalmia condition of dry eyes
cataract clouding of the lens causes decreased vision
glaucoma increased intraocular pressure results in retinal and optic nerve damage
macular degeneration deterioration of the macula lutea of the retina
diabetic retinopathy retinal microaneurysms, hemorrhages occur secondary to an endocrine condition
hordeolum (stye) localized purulent infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
strabismus abnormal deviations of the eye

Question Answer
adrenal cortex outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
adrenal medulla inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
ovaries located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion
pancreas located behind the stomach. Islet (alpha and beta) cells (islets of Langerhans) secrete hormones. Also contains cells that are exocrine in function. They secrete enzymes, via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.
parathyroid glands four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland
pituitary gland (hypophysis) located at the base of the brain in the sella turcia; composed of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe
anterior lobe adenohypophysis
posterior lobe neurohypophysis
testes two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion
thyroid gland located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine
adrenaline (epinephrine) secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the adrenal cortex
aldosterone secreted by the andrenal cortex; increases salt (sodium) reabsorption
androgen male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is an example
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; increases reabsorption of water by the kidney
calcitonin secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels
epinephrine (adrenaline) secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic); it is part of the body's "fight or flight" reaction
estradiol estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries
estrogen female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex. examples are estradiol and estrone
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by the testes

Question Answer
aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body or muscle of the eye
dacry/o tears, tear duct
ir/o, irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
opt/o, optic/o eye,vision
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc; nipple-like
phac/o, phak/o lens of the eye
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (white of the eye)
uve/o uvea; vascular layer of the eye (iris,ciliary body,and choroid)
vitre/o glassy
ambly/o dull, dim
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
nyct/o night
phot/o light
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
xer/o dry
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-tropia to turn
acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing; the sense of hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o, auricul/o ear
cochle/o cochlea
mastoid/o mastoid process
myring/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
ossicul/o ossicle
ot/o ear
salping/o eustachian tube, auditory tube
staped/o stapes (third bone of the middle ear)
tympan/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
vestibul/o vestibule
-acusis or -cusis hearing
-meter instrument to measure
-otia ear condition

Question Answer
aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland, hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
andr/o male
calc/o, calci/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o third
estr/o female
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)
phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine
-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)
-uria urine condition
eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive; above
hypo- deficient; below; under; less than normal
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri- three

COMBINING FORMS


acous/o hearing
ambly/o dull, dim
aque/o water
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear

NG FORMS


auricul/o ear
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body

COMBINING FORMS


dacry/o tears
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
ir/o iris
irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears

COMBINING FORMS


mastoid/o mastoid process
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
myring/o eardrum
nyct/o night
ocul/o eye

COMBINING FORMS


ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye
optic/o eye
ossicul/o ossicle
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc
phac/o lens of the eye
COMBINING FORMS


phak/o lens of the eye
phot/o light
presby/o old age
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
salpin/o Eustachian tube
scler/o sclera (white of eye

COMBINING FORMS


scot/o darkness
staped/o stapes
tympan/o eardrum
uve/o uvea
vestibul/o vestibule
vitre/o glassy
xer/o dry

SUFFIXES


-acusis hearing
-cusis hearing
-meter instrument for measure
-metry process of measurement
-opia vision

SUFFIXES


-opsia vision
-otia ear condition
-phobia fear
-plegic paralysis; palsy
-tropia to turn

Introduction Endocrine System (cont'd)
ENDOCRINE glands—
Secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

EXOCRINE glands—
Send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) via ducts to the

QUICK QUIZ:

What is the soft, jellylike material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball?
sclera
vitreous humor
aqueous humor
fovea centralis

Correct answer is B: vitreous humor

Endocrine Glands

thyroid gland
parathyroid glands (four glands)
adrenal glands (one pair)
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
pituitary gland

ovaries (one pair)
testes (one pair)
pineal gland
thymus gland

Terminology

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

dacry/o tears, tear duct
ir/o iris
irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye, vision
optic/o eye, vision
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc
phac/o lens of the eye

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

phak/o lens of the eye
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (white of the eye)
uve/o uvea
vitre/o glassy

CONDITIONS

ambly/o dull, dim
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
nyct/o night

CONDITIONS

phot/o light
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
xer/o dry

CONDITIONS

-opia vision
-opsia vision
-tropia to turn

Thyroid Function

There are two hormones:
thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyroid hormones aid cells in their uptake of oxygen and regulate metabolic rate.
Calcitonin: stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bone.

QUICK QUIZ:

Which term means inflammation of the eyelid?

ophthalmoplegia
keratitis
blepharitis
blepharoptosis

Correct Answer is C: blepharitis

Parathyroid Function

Parathyroid hormone (PTH): causes calcium to mobilize from bones into the bloodstream

Errors of Refraction

Astigmatism: defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
Hyperopia: farsightedness
Myopia: nearsightedness
Presbyopia: impairment of vision due to old age reducing lens accommodation

Adrenal Glands: Location and Structure

Each gland has two parts

an outer portion, the adrenal cortex
Secretes corticosteriods or steriods, chemicals derived from cholesterol

an inner portion, adrenal medulla
Secretes catecholamines
chemicals derived from amino acids

Abnormal Conditions (cont'd)

Chalazion: small, hard, cystic mass on eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of sebaceous gland along margin of eyelid

Diabetic retinopathy - retinal effects caused by diabetes mellitus include:
microaneurysms
hemorrhages
dilation of retinal veins
neovascularization

Function: Adrenal Cortex Secretes

Glucocorticoids: influence metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins (cortisol) and are anti-inflammatory (cortisone).
Influences—SUGAR

Mineralocorticoids: regulate electrolytes
Aldosterone: reabsorption of sodium/excretion of potassium. Influences—SALT

Gonadocorticoids: androgens and estrogens. Influences—SEX

Hordeolum (stye): staph infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
Macular degeneration: progressive damage to the macular of the retina
Nystagmus: repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
Strabismus: abnormal deviation of the eye

Function Adrenal Medulla Secretes

Two types of catecholamine hormones

Epinephrine (adrenaline): increases heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, releases glucose from storage.

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): constricts vessels to raise blood pressure.

Both are sympathomimetic agents.

Abnormal Conditions (cont'd)

Retinal detachment: two layers of the retina separate from each other
Photopsia: bright flashes of light
Floaters: vitreous clumps of retina
Scleral buckle: belt to buckle retina to sclera
Pneumatic retinopexy: gas bubble injected in vitreous cavity to help reattach retina

Pancreas Function
Endocrine function
islets of Langerhans produce:
Insulin: promotes movement of glucose into cells and promotes storage as glycogen
Glucagon: promotes movement of glucose into the blood by breaking down

Diagnostic Procedures

Fluorescein angiography: dye injection to examine blood flow in the retina
Ophthalmoscopy: visual examination of eye interior through dilated pupil
Slit lamp microscopy: magnified view of expanded number of eye structures

Pituitary Gland

Pea-sized gland in depression of skull (sella turcica) also called the hypophysis
Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Hypothalamus controls secretions of the pituitary via releasing factors (hormones)

Treatment

Enucleation: removal of entire eyeball
Laser photocoagulation: Argon laser creates inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky blood vessels
LASIK: laser to correct errors of refraction by sculpting the cornea
Treatment (cont'd)

Phacoemulsification: ultrasound to break up lens for aspiration for cataract removal
Vitrectomy: removal of vitreous and replacing it with a clear solution

Pituitary Function

Anterior Pituitary
Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH)
Prolactin (PRL)

Posterior pituitary: stores and releases hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH; vasopressin)
Oxytocin (OT)

The Ear

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Outer ear receives sound waves.
Sound waves travel to middle ear.
Sound vibrations reach inner ear (labyrinth).

Male
Testes
Hormone: testosterone,Maintains germ cell formation and secondary sexual characteristics
Female

Ovaries
Hormones: estrogen and progesterone
Maintains menstrual cycle, release of ovum, secondary sexual characteristics, preparation of uterus for pregnancy

Ear Anatomy and Physiology

Outer ear
Pinna or auricle: projecting flap
External auditory meatus (auditory canal)

Middle ear
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Malleus
Incus
Stapes
Oval window

Inner ear: labyrinth
Cochlea
Auditory nerve fibers

Balance and equilibrium
Vestibule
Semicircular canals

QUICK QUIZ:
The outer section of each adrenal gland is the ....

adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
adrenaline
adrenocorticotropic hormone

Correct answer is B: adrenal cortex

What is the snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear that contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells?

pinna
auricle
ossicle
cochlea

Correct answer is D: cochlea

QUICK QUIZ: (cont'd)

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males....
luteinizing hormone (LH)
estrodoil
oxytocin
prolactin

Correct answer is A: luteinizing hormone (LH).

Terminology

COMBINING FORMS

acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
cochle/o cochlea
mastoid/o mastoid process

COMBINING FORMS

myring/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
ossicul/o ossicle
ot/o ear
salping/o Eustachian tube
staped/o stapes
tyman/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
vestibul/o vestibule

SUFFIXES

-acusis or-cusis hearing
-meter instrument for measure
-otia ear condition

Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology

GLANDS

aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands (ovaries, testes)
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland

GLANDS

pituitar/o pituitary gland; hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland

RELATED FORMS

andr/o male
calc/o, calici/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o thirst
estr/o female
gluc/o, glyc/o sugar

GLANDS

home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/I potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)

GLANDS

phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine

SUFFIXES

-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of
-uria urine condition

PREFIXES

eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, below
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri three

Symptoms and Pathologic Conditions

Acoustic neuroma: benign tumor arising from 8th cranial nerve, causes tinnitus, vertigo, dizziness, and decreased hearing
Cholesteatoma: skin cells and cholesterol in a sac in the middle ear (cyst-like mass associated with chronic infections)
Deafness: loss of ability to hear

Ménière disease: disorder of labyrinth with elevated endolymph pressure in cochlea and semicircular canals causing tinnitus, sensitivity to sound, progressive hearing loss, headache, nausea, and vertigo
Otitis media: inflammation of middle ear
Otosclerosis: hardening of bony tissue in labyrinth

Tinnitus: sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in ears
Vertigo: sensation of irregular motion (whirling) from disease of inner ear or nerve carrying messages from semicircular canals
Clinical Procedures

Audiometry: audiometer is an electric device to determine hearing loss by frequency
Cochlear implant: Surgically implanted device allowing sensorineural hearing-impaired persons to understand speech
Ear thermometry: body temperature measured with infrared radiation from the eardrum

Otoscopy: visual examination of ear with small, hand-held scope
Tuning fork test
Rinne: hearing test using a vibrating fork against the mastoid bone (bone conduction) and in front of the auditory meatus (air conduction)
Weber: fork is placed on the center of the forehead; normal hearing has equal loudness in both ears.

Which term means surgical excision of the adrenal gland (specifically)?

adenectomy
adrenopathy
adrenalectomy
pancreatectomy

Correct answer is C: adrenalectomy specifically means excision of the adrenal gland.

Which term means a blood condition of too little potassium?

hyperkalemia
hypocalcemia
hypercalciuria
hypokalemia

Correct answeris D: hypokalemia

...

Pathology—Thyroid Gland

Goiter: Enlargement of the thyroid

Hypersecretion
Hyperthyroidism
Graves' disease
Exophthalmos and proptosis
Hyposecretion
Hypothyroidism
Myxedema
Cretinism
Neoplasms
Thyroid carcinoma

...

Pathology—Parathyroid

Hypersecretion
Hyperparathyroidism
Loss of bone density
Kidney stones
Hypercalcemia

Hyposecretion
Hypoparathyroidism
Muscle and nerve weakness
Tetany
Hypocalcemia

...

Pathology—Adrenal Cortex

Hypersecretion
adrenal virilism
amenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, voice deepening
Cushing syndrome
Obesity, moonface, thoracic fat deposition
Hyposecretion
Addison disease
Deficient mineral-and gluco-corticoids, hyponatremia, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure

...

Pathology—Adrenal Medulla

Hypersecretion
Pheochromocytoma
Benign tumor of adrenal medulla
Excess epinephrine and norepinephrine
Hypertension, palpitations, severe headaches, sweating, flushing of the face, and muscle spasms

...

Pathology—Pancreas

Hypersecretion
Hyperinsulinism
Hypoglycemia, convulsions, fainting

Hyposecretion
Diabetes mellitus
Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
Type 1 : childhood onset, typically
Type 2 : adult onset, typically

...

Pathology Pituitary Gland: (Anterior Lobe)

Hypersecretion
acromegaly
gigantism

Hyposecretion
dwarfism
panhypopituitarism

...

Pathology Pituitary Gland: (Posterior Lobe)

Hypersecretion
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
Excess ADH
Excess water retention
Hyposecretion
Diabetes insipidus
Deficient ADH
Polyuria and polydipsia

...

Laboratory Tests

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
Measures circulating glucose in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours
Serum and urine tests
Measures hormones, electrolytes, glucose, etc., in blood and urine as indicators of endocrine function
Thyroid function tests
Measures T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream

...

Clinical Procedures

exophthalmometry
computed tomography (CT) scan
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
thyroid scan
ultrasound examination

...

Review Sheet (cont'd)

aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
andr/o male
calc/o, calici/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region

COMBINING FORMS


crin/o secrete
dips/o third
estr/o female
gluc/o, glyc/o sugar
gonad/o sex glands (ovaries, testes)
home/o sameness

COMBINING FORMS


hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
insulin/o insulin
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)

COMBINING FORMS


pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
phys/o growing
pituitar/o pituitary gland;
or hypophysis
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure

COMBINING FORMS


thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine

SUFFIXES


-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of
-uria urine condition

PREFIXES


eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, below
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri- three

...

What is the pathologic condition in which enlargement of the extremities is caused by hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary after puberty?
Addison disease
acromegaly
Cushing syndrome
Graves disease

Correct answeris B: Acromegaly. See p. 746 in 8e for more information.

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